What Russian books were banned in Russia
What Russian will live without prohibitions? Who, then, to fight, against which to rebel? So the whole meaning of life can be lost. The power at all times subjected to opal individual genres, authors, books. There were also frankly funny bans and especially extravagant censors. What did our ancestors secretly read?
The ancestor of the modern comic strip - lubok - was forbidden, it seems, at all times. There were reasons for this: the clergymen saw in it a too familiar interpretation of biblical scenes, critics scorned for excessive popular love, the rulers did not please the satirical scenes and parodies of power. For example, Tsar Peter could not appreciate the splint, which was depicted "a cat with red eyes bulging."
Unworthy images were ordered to be banned. And here is another case: I saw somehow one ministerial official in the bazaar a cheap popular picture with the image of two fighting men and the inscription: “Two fools are fighting, and the third is looking and laughing”.Looking around, he asked, “Who is the third?” I received a brief answer to my rhetorical question. Because of the lack of humor in a single citizen, all the pictures available to the peddler, the seller himself, as well as all the popular popular literature, starting in 1812, suffered as a result.
The complete manuscript of Catherine II's Notes in French was bequeathed by the empress to her son Pavel, who, however, did not want to divulge the secret life of the state primarily because of the possibility of the appearance of rumors about his belonging to the royal Romanov dynasty. True, he gave the manuscript to read to his friend Prince Alexander Kurakin, after which the whole court was read with notes. Later, Nicholas I will try to confiscate these lists and prohibit for reading the “shameful document” to members of his family. Nikolay did not like Catherine at all, believing that she "disgraced the clan." The modern reader of the note of the queen is known from the novel Pikul "Favorite".
The test for the immature minds
When it came to the treatment of the Russian Muse, Nabokov spoke of Nicholas I as a “murderer” or “jester”. The emperor cruelly suppressed the slightest manifestations of freethinking.So, Turgenev was arrested and exiled to the village only for writing an obituary in memory of Gogol. Censorship extended not only to domestic authors, but also to foreign ones. In 1850, the emperor banned the "Red and Black" Stendhal. According to the logic of the king, the main character of the novel, Julien Sorel, is, firstly, an ardent admirer of Napoleon, and secondly, he simultaneously seeks into high society and despises him, blazing with "revolutionary fire." The emperor was not a liberal, and in others liberalism did not encourage. As a result, the sentence was pronounced - the novel is capable of exerting "an extremely harmful effect on immature minds, however, as well as those who have become stronger."
One, as before, in the universe ...
The poem on which Lermontov worked all his life, “The Demon” was never published during the life of the poet. For the first time, “The Demon” in Russian was published in 1856 in an edition of 28 copies. The publication was received by members of the royal family and people in high positions. In 1960, the poem was printed, but with significant censorship adjustments. The poor fellow censors didn’t find a place for themselves: the poem is published abroad, the author is recognized as a classic, and there’s a lack of spirit in publishing the Demon homeland.And in general, they asked, “what is it for a village boy, a schoolboy or a commoner to know the“ Demon ”?
Tale is a lie, but there is a hint in it
Fairy tales have always attracted the special attention of the authorities. Not escaped the fate of a thorough analysis and the search for "malware" and "Konek-Gorbunok" Ershov. At the beginning of the last century, the story was abusively called the “cheap print caricature” of Pushkin's fairy tales, and the author was accused of being too “deeply believing in the star of Ivan the Fool”. What can a fairy tale teach in which everything is “measured according to the king and according to the boyars”? The last straw, apparently, was an episode in which the people greeted the king with an enthusiastic “hurray!”. Paradoxically, in tsarist times, the fairy tale was also subjected to harsh censorship, primarily because of the “careless touch on the Orthodox Church.” In 1855, The Little Humpbacked Horse was banned for printing due to the fact that many comic scenes mention the “name of God and use the sign of the cross.” By the way, in 1832 the collection of Dahl's fairy tales was banned, and the author himself was arrested. Serious scandal flared up in the Soviet era and around the "Hen-Ryaby."
The idea of writing "Crocodile" Chukovsky suggested Gorky, recommending to create something like the "Horse-Gorbunka" Ershov in a modern way.Thus was born the fabulous poem in three parts, which was published in Petrograd in 1917. Enthusiastic critical assessments swiftly gave way to anger. Later, Krupskaya will put the question squarely: “What does all this nonsense mean?” There were unformed suspicions in the leader’s widow that the whole story with the Crocodile and the boy Vanya had some kind of subtext, but he “was so carefully disguised that it was rather difficult to guess” . The verdict - "Crocodile" Soviet children should not read, "not because it is a fairy tale, but because it is bourgeois murk." It did not please the censors that the poem "captivated" the children, caused "explosions of laughter and enthusiastic exclamations." At the beginning of the 1920s, the Crocodile was named one of the “most powerful tools of a social uprising.”
That is how Zoshchenko was christened after the story “Before the Sunrise”, devoted to self-analysis. The author himself doubted whether it was worth printing a book at all, it was too intimate and frank. The predictions came true - only the first part of the book appeared in the magazine "October", the publication of the subsequent ones was forbidden. The story was awarded with the titles "vulgar", "anti-art" and "harmful" books, which are "alien to the feelings and thoughts of our people."
Zoshchenko himself tried to defend the work, indignant that most of the caustic remarks were made by those critics who did not read the story at all. However, the flow of dirt can be easily explained. The line was defined by Stalin, who accused the writer that “the whole war was sideways” for him (Zoshchenko wrote the story of the evacuation in Alma-Ata in 1942). It was blamed that during the height of the war, Zoshchenko "did not give a single efficient line." “Not a single word either for or against,” “writes all kinds of nonsense and nonsense,” such definitions followed in his address. The writer was dubbed the “philistine hlyupik”, “preacher of unprincipledness” and the distributor of “spiteful things”.