What is bradycardia, how is it dangerous and how to treat it? Sinus bradycardia - what is it?
The heart is the organ from whose smooth operation depends on the life of a person and its quality. That is why even small deviations from the norm should attract attention and alarm. What is bradycardia and how is it dangerous? What symptoms are characteristic of this pathology, consider below.
In a healthy person, the heart sections are evenly reduced and relaxed, pumping blood. Normally, heart rate (HR) is between 60 and 90 beats per minute. You can register this indicator by putting a clock with a second hand in front of you and simply counting the pulse on the radial artery. Normally, it should be a good filling and tension, uniform, that is, between two blows should pass the same time.If the heart rhythm is disturbed, then this condition is called arrhythmia. It can be of several types.
Types of arrhythmias
What is bradycardia and tachycardia? This question arises in those happy people who have not faced heart disease close. These are two polar rhythm disturbances. Tachycardia is called an increase in the number of contractions of the heart over a hundred beats per minute. There is another type of arrhythmia - extrasystole. It is characterized by premature contractions of the heart. Answering the question of what is bradycardia, we can say that this is a decrease in the number of heart contractions to 55 and below. As a rule, such a rhythm disturbance at the early stages has no clinical signs and is detected during the scheduled examination.
If you are interested in what is sinus bradycardia of the heart, and counting the pulse, found that it is below 50, do not panic and call an ambulance. For those people involved in sports or physical labor, bradycardia is not uncommon. However, they do not experience any discomfort, that is, the volume of blood flowing to the brain does not decrease.This is due to the fact that, due to the constant load, their respiratory and cardiovascular systems are more developed than in the average person. Thus, the question of what is bradycardia loses its relevance for them. Its occurrence in a healthy person is possible in a stressful situation, with extreme fatigue and after a long stay in the cold or in a hot and humid climate (or, for example, in the steam room). Moderate sinus bradycardia (what it is, we'll talk more about later) can be triggered by a tight tie or collar. Such conditions do not pose a danger to human health and do not require special treatment.
Bradycardia resulting from inhibition of pacemaker activity
Analyzing what bradycardia is and why it is dangerous, it should be mentioned that the pathological decrease in heart rate can be caused by several reasons. And one of them is the oppression of the pacemaker. This is due to a drop in the tone of the sympathetic nervous system or increased excitation of the vagus nerve. In turn, the cause of these phenomena can be such humoral factors as high blood levels of bile acids, low levels of thyroid hormones.The development of bradycardia in this case can be provoked by the following factors:
- vegetative-vascular dysfunctions;
- high intracranial pressure;
- taking certain medications;
- high levels of potassium in the blood;
- infectious diseases.
Decrease in rhythm due to blockades
Speaking of what bradycardia is, the following should be noted: it can also be caused by heart block (impulse transmission to various parts of the organ is disrupted). However, it can be sinoauricular. There is a violation of the transmission of the pulse in the atria, when the currents are transmitted from the sinus node to the myocardium through time. It can also be atrioventricular. In this case, the impaired impulse transmission occurs in the ventricles? and some of their cuts just fall out of the rhythm of the heart. There are three degrees in the development of such blockades. With the first, there is a slight decrease in the rate of impulse transmission to the ventricles, with the second, not all of them reach, and with the third, the number of contractions decreases, caused by the blockade of the conducting system.
Well, finally we got to the most important.Answer the head questions: "Sinus bradycardia - what is it and what are its symptoms?" It should be noted that in most cases this pathology proceeds unnoticed and is detected by chance, during preventive examinations. Only in the transition to the chronic form of the disease begins to actively manifest itself. This is due to the fact that as a result of reducing the frequency of contractions, the volume of blood decreases, as well as the amount of oxygen and glucose entering the brain. In the early stages of the disease manifests itself weakness, dizziness, cold sweat. Disturbed sleep and memory. Patients complain of anxiety, heart fading, shortness of breath. Despite the apparent insignificance of the symptoms, in order to understand sinus bradycardia - what it is and what real danger it poses, it is enough to consider the symptoms that appear when the process goes into the acute stage. Here, signs of brain hypoxia are pronounced heart failure. In addition, the patient may pursue pain in the heart (angina), darkening of the eyes, frequent moments of confused consciousness (semi-constipation).Severe bradycardia may be complicated by the symptom of Morgagni-Adams-Stokes. It is manifested by loss of consciousness, sharp pallor of the skin, respiratory failure, convulsions. It must be remembered that if the interval between ventricular contractions exceeds 15 seconds, cardiac arrest and clinical death is possible.
Moderate bradycardia is considered if heart rate indices are between 55 and 45 beats per minute. As a rule, it is asymptomatic or manifested by small autonomic disorders. The cause of it most often becomes an increase in the tone of the vagus nerve, which is responsible for the contractile function of the heart. Clinically moderate bradycardia may manifest as increased fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath.
Bradycardia in children: causes
Sadly, this disease can occur at any age, and the diagnosis of sinus bradycardia in children is often noted. We understand what it is in adults, but in small patients the pathology will have slightly different criteria. The child's heart beats more often, so the indicators change.Diagnose "bradycardia" in children is possible in the following cases:
- if the heart rate of a newborn child is below 100 beats per minute;
- children from one to six years - less than 70;
- adolescents - from 60 and below.
As a rule, such deviations from a normal rhythm, even if they have no external manifestations, do not lead to anything good and in the future can cause the development of many pathological conditions. Therefore, the faster bradycardia is detected, its cause is determined, and treatment is prescribed, the more chances to avoid complications that can be caused by brain hypoxia. The causes of this pathology are also different. Often it can be caused by such ordinary things as holding your breath, fear or impressions that have accumulated during the day (for many children the heartbeat in the evening is an order of magnitude lower than in the morning). In addition, bradycardia can cause:
- neurosis, endocrine disorders in adolescents;
- fetal hypoxia;
- increase intracranial pressure;
- infectious diseases;
- fast growth;
- lead poisoning, nicotine;
Symptoms of bradycardia in children
During this disease, there are three stages of development.If at the first bradycardia appears only a slight deterioration in health and can be determined only by laboratory diagnosis, then at the second stage of its manifestation it is already more pronounced. It is possible to suspect this pathology in a child if he presents the following complaints:
- lethargy, fatigue, dizzy spells;
- decreased appetite;
- difficulty breathing, shortness of breath;
- cold sweat, loss of consciousness;
- chest pain, slow pulse;
- pressure surges.
Despite all these symptoms, moderate bradycardia does not pose a threat to the life of the child and is well treated. However, the third stage of the disease can cause serious pathological changes both in the myocardium and in other organs and have very serious consequences, including death. That is why it is important to timely identify bradycardia and begin its treatment.
What is bradycardia and how to treat it? These questions are vital for those who have been given a similar diagnosis. It should be noted that this pathology refers to those diseases that require drug therapy only in the case of pronounced clinical manifestations.If you have been given a similar diagnosis, but there are no particular abnormalities in the functioning of the body, treatment is not carried out. If the patient's condition worsens, there are frequent fainting, dizziness, symptoms of heart failure increase, therapy consists in taking one of the following drugs:
- "Atropine" - three hours intravenously at 2 milligrams, or subcutaneously at 0.5-1.0 milligrams;
- "Isoproterenol" - intravenous drip up to 4 milligrams;
- "Alupent" - infusion (10 milligrams per 500 milliliters of saline);
- extracts of eleutherococcus or ginseng;
- preparations of belladonna.
In severe cases, treatment is carried out in a hospital and is aimed at stabilizing hemodynamics and eliminating the causes of bradycardia. The dose of drugs is determined by the doctor for each patient individually.
In those cases where bradycardia is associated with the natural aging of the body or it cannot be stabilized with the help of drug therapy, pacing is prescribed. Indications for this intervention is a reduction in heart rate to 30-40 beats per minute, frequent loss of consciousness, symptoms of MAS, signs of heart failure.The procedure is performed using a probe, which is inserted through the subclavian vein into the heart cavity. At the same time cardiostimulation can carry both temporary (in case of acute disorders) and permanent. Constantly the procedure is carried out with the help of a pacemaker implantation. Modern models are a device that is no larger than a wrist watch and weighs less than 100 grams. Under local anesthesia, it is implanted just below the clavicle. Thanks to this, the patient is able to simulate a heart rhythm. For example, with constant bradycardia, the device also works continuously, and if it is transient, the pacemaker is turned on only during an attack, and after it ends it turns off. In addition, there are now rhythm-adaptive stimulants that can independently increase heart rate during increased physical activity. Thus, the patient gets the opportunity to forget about what is bradycardia.
Modern medicine is able to withstand many dangerous diseases. But, despite all its possibilities, heart pathologies rank first in terms of mortality.To avoid such a sad outcome, be more careful about your health. Eliminate bad habits, and if you feel unwell - do not delay the visit to the doctor. Then the question of how bradycardia manifests itself, what it is and how to treat this disease will lose relevance for you.