What is blood pressure?
Depending on the localization of pressure in the vessels,Blood pressure is divided into three types: arterial, venous and capillary. Thanks to pressure, blood is carried along the blood vessels of the circulatory system of the body. Thus, the homeostasis and metabolic processes in it are maintained. Arterial blood pressure depends onheart rate, as well as on the number ofblood that is released during systole. Important is the viscosity of blood, the level of pressure of the thoracic and abdominal cavity, as well as the amount of blood that circulates in the body.
In the process of contraction of the left ventricle of the heartthe arterial blood pressure reaches its maximum value. At this time, the heart pushes out about 70 cm3 of blood. Of course, this is a large enough volume of blood, which can not immediately pass through thin vessels and capillaries, so the aortic walls stretch, at this time the pressure in it rises. Normal blood pressure (systolic) varies from 100 to 140 mm Hg. post.
The diastolic pressure is formed as a result ofreduction of the walls of the aorta and large arteries. Thus, blood is pushed into the blood capillaries. At the same time blood pressure gradually decreases and is about 70-80 mm Hg. post. It should be said that the blood pressure in the vessels depends on their remoteness with respect to the heart: the farther they are from the heart, the smaller the blood pressure indicators in them. To determine the level of blood pressure doctors use a sphingomanometer.
The main cause of hypertension (increasedpressure) many experts consider excessive emotionality, nervous breakdowns, emotional experiences and other psychoemotional stresses. It is the failures in the nervous system that are accompanied by a stable elevated anterial pressure. In patients with a diagnosis of hypertension, blood pressure rises sharply and persists significantly longer, with insignificant psychoemotional loads compared to healthy people. Accordingly, with a systematic increase in blood pressure our body gets used, adapts to these loads, high blood pressure is fixed at a certain level. The question arises - what should be the normal blood pressure. Its norm is mainly dependent on individual physiological characteristics of a person, age, lifestyle, physical activity, etc. For example, in adolescence, the pressure should be 100/70, and for 60-year-olds it is 150/90 mm Hg. Art.
An important factor in the development of hypertensionare kidney diseases, they take part in the regulation of blood pressure (produce specific biologically active compounds). With kidney diseases, the mechanism of excretion from the body of NaCl is violated, and this, as is known, provokes an increase in blood pressure. The worst thing is when hypertension passes into a chronic stage. This period is characterized by stable high blood pressure (hypertension), the patient's body adapts to the existing loads, creates a false opinion of well-being, that is, the patient practically does not feel pain and, as a consequence, ceases to be treated.
Knowing the mechanism of development of this pathology it can becontrol. To do this, it is necessary to follow all the recommendations of the doctor, to conduct an orderly rest and labor regime, to reduce the intensity of the psychoemotional strain on the body. When hypertension is detected, therapists prescribe medications with a sedative effect. Hypertension with excessive body weight for the purpose of prevention should lose weight. Hypertension positively correlates with excess weight. Obesity indicates a violation of metabolic processes, that is, the synthesis of lipids from nutrients predominates over its disintegration. When the disease progresses, breathing is disrupted and heart failure develops, while patients develop drowsiness and swelling. Very often the cause of diabetes, cholelithiasis, myocardial infarction is obesity.