Tuberculosis of the kidneys
Tuberculosis of the kidney takes the leading place amongnon-pulmonary forms of the disease. It is a late manifestation of the infectious process in the human body. The outcome of tuberculosis of the kidneys is the disintegration of tissues, the formation of caverns and cavities.
The launched form of this disease in the lungs,Bones provoke the transition of infection to the tissue of the kidney. The most sensitive are the cortical layers. Kidneys gradually lose their functional activity due to destruction, the gradual shrinking of the parenchyma of the organ. The outcome of tuberculosis intoxication is the development of pionephrosis, in which the bladder, ureters and genitals are involved.
Tuberculosis of the kidney begins in ten yearsafter the initial infection. Diagnosis of the disease is rather late, as the clinical picture of this condition is quite erased. Therefore, the development of neglected forms is natural, for the treatment of which surgical operations are used to remove the organ.
Weakness, dull pain, localized in the regionlumbar, a significant increase in temperature - the main signs that characterized kidney tuberculosis. Symptoms of the disease are hidden. A reliable sign that helps confirm infection of the organ is the determination of the causative agent in the urine.
Directly into the substance of mycobacterium kidneystuberculosis gets hematogenous. Initially, the brain layer of the organ is affected: foci of decomposition appear, caverns, ulcerative necrotic manifestations are formed. In the future, the process extends to the pelvis, bladder, calyx, ureter, urethra.
A rather frequent sign that characterizeskidney tuberculosis in children, is the formation of scars, which can be called the result of healing of small lesions. Sometimes bacteria do not die, but remain in tissues in the inactivated state. After a decrease in immunity, activation of pathogens may occur. This leads to relapse of tuberculosis intoxication. To a similar outcome are the exhaustion of the body, hypothermia, infection, pathology of the urinary tract.
Tuberculosis of the kidneys is a disease thatis difficult to diagnose. Early detection of infection is possible in conditions of a special anti-tuberculosis institution. The main diagnostic criteria are pyuria, pyelonephritis, pyelitis, cystitis, cystopyelitis.
Urine testing on bacteria also helpsto establish the causative agent of the disease. This method can be called the most accurate. In addition, the X-ray of the kidneys, bladder. With the unchanged condition of the organs, urography is performed. Less accurate, but also used are ultrasound studies of urinary organs, radioisotope techniques, angiography.
Tuberculosis of the kidneys requires special treatment inestablishments of stationary type. It can be operative (in the late stages of the disease), and also conservative. The second type of therapy involves the administration of the following drugs: antibiotics, p-aminosalicylic and isonicotinic acid.
Operative methods include cavernectomy, resection, cavernotomy, removal of the entire kidney. After the operation, long-term therapy is prescribed to prevent recurrence of the disease.
To stop the reproduction of bacteria onThe conservative stage of treatment is chemotherapy. The next period of treatment is the destruction of bacilli, which are present throughout the body. Non-pharmacological methods of therapy include inductothermy, ultrasound, which are necessary to stimulate the recovery processes. Considerable attention is paid to nutrition. A special diet is prescribed, which excludes the consumption of salty and spicy foods.