Trinity Union: the causes of creation and consequences
Creation of the Triple Alliance
At the end of the nineteenth century, a marked rapprochement took place in relations between France and Russia. Austria and Prussia this could not disturb. Moreover, they clearly feared potential retaliation from the Russian side for unfair treatment of its interests during the Berlin Congress, so they had to somehow secure themselves. In October 1879, a secret agreement was reached between Germany and Austria, which was indirectly directed against France, and directly against Russia. Three years later, Italy also signed the pact. This meant that in 1882 the Triple Alliance was formed. At that time, he became a key factor in European foreign policy. A few years later there was a high likelihood of the Franco-German war. Immediately after this, the text of the agreement was officially published. Thus, Germany and Austria openly declared their sincere desire to preserve peace in Europe and to fight its violators.In fact, the German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck wanted to show everyone how powerful militarily his country was at that time.
The Triple Alliance, as already mentioned above, carried a serious threat not only to Russia, but also to France. As a result, in 1891 an agreement on mutual assistance in the event of external armed aggression against one of the countries was also concluded between the two states. Having such an agreement, Alexander III was not afraid to openly demonstrate independence in his foreign policy, which in turn led to a change for the worse in relations between Germany and Russia. The creation of the Triple Alliance also marked the beginning of the customs war, which was subsequently settled on conditions that were unprofitable for either party. From Germany, duties on Russian products were raised and significantly reduced on Austrian goods. Russia also responded.
Situation in Europe
At a time when the Tripartite Union was created under the leadership of Germany, England seized Egypt, which significantly ruined its relations with Turkey.On the Austrian initiative, Serbia was brought into the union. Russia had very serious difficulties in relations with Bulgaria, because economically it could not give it as much as Germany could with Austria. At the same time, as a result of the uprising in Romania, the possibility of its accession to Bulgaria arose, which was opposed by England and Russia. Bismarck tried to reinsure the Triple Alliance and conclude an agreement with Russia, but Alexander III refused. This further aggravated Russian-German relations and led to the emergence of many contradictions in terms of economics.
Due to the difficult situation in the economic relations of Germany and Russia, France in 1893 opened its financial markets to the latter. In 1904, in the face of the German threat, England signed an agreement with France, and three years later - with Russia, thereby completing the formation of the Entente. The creation of this bloc was not to allow Germany to secure European hegemony. Thus, at the beginning of the twentieth century in Europe, the leading states delimited, forming two military-political blocs, which became the Entente and the Triple Alliance. Their confrontation was the main reason for the start of the First World War.