The Autonomous Republic is ... The rights and status of an autonomous republic. How many autonomous republics and districts are there in Russia?
What is an autonomous republic? Since you are reading this article, it means that you have already asked yourself this question. So, let's look at the beginning with the definition. An autonomous republic is a form of state autonomy in some countries and political organization of the population that resides in the territory of one or another autonomy. This concept originated in the RSFSR, where the legal status of the AR was determined by the specific Provision of the Autonomous Republic, and after the adoption of the "Stalin Constitution" (the Constitution of the USSR in 1936) and was firmly entrenched in all the main normative acts of the country. In the past, the RSFSR had sixteen autonomous republics. Presently, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (AKP) has the status of AR, which is part of the Russian Federation.
Rights of the Autonomous Republic
Autonomous Republic was characterized by such state and legal grounds.
- Territory and the right of territorial supremacy (without the consent of the ASSR could not be changed territory).
- Citizenship (each citizen is a citizen of the RSFSR and the USSR).
- The Constitution (in the Constitution of the RSFSR there was a requirement that the constitution of the ASSR be considered with the peculiarities of an autonomous republic).
- The highest state authorities: the government, the highest judicial body, the public prosecutor of the Republic.
- National statehood:
- public authorities are made up of local people, that is, people who know the language and customs of the territory;
- work is conducted both in the official language and the language of the people of the given republic;
- own national symbols: coat of arms, flag, capital and hymn (in the USSR the anthem was unified).
- a special order of education;
- representation in the highest state authorities;
- Special guarantees of the legal force of acts issued by the state power.
There were times
Earlier, in Soviet times, on the territory of the RSFSR, it was16 autonomous Soviet socialist republics: the Bashkir, Yakut, Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkarian AR, Kalmyk, Karelian, Chuvash, Mari, North Ossetian, Tuva, Chechen-Ingush, Tatar, Komi ASSR, Buryat, Udmurt, Mordovian. All these are Russian autonomous republics.
Consider several of the above-listed autonomous republics of the time, and with them the present Autonomous Republic of Crimea.
The Bashkir ASSR
The Bashkir ASSR was part of the RSFSR. It was formed after the signing of an agreement between the Soviet authorities and the Bashkir government in March 1919. It became the first ASSR, which is part of the RSFSR. This is the only autonomous republic that was created on the basis of contractual relations. In 1990, on October 11, a declaration on the state sovereignty of the same Bashkir SSR (now the Republic of Bashkortostan) was signed.
The Karelian ASSR
The Autonomous Karelian SSR adopted the ConstitutionThe USSR in December 1936 and received the name of the Karelian Autonomous SSR. In June 1937 the Constitution of the KASSR was adopted, and the inscriptions of the coat of arms and the flag were made in 3 languages: Russian, Finnish and Karelian. Kandalaksha district was transferred to the Murmansk region in 1938, in May. Reorganized to the Republic of Karelia in May 1991.
The Mari ASSR
Mari Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Mari Autonomous SovietThe Socialist Republic) was formed in 1936, on December 5. December 22, 1991 was transformed into the Mari Soviet Socialist Republic (MSSR).
Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Chuvash Autonomous SovietThe Socialist Republic), formerly the Chuvash Autonomous Region. Later, in time, or rather, in April 1925, acquired the status of an autonomous republic. After a long period, in February 1992, it was renamed from the Chuvash Soviet Socialist Republic to the Chuvash Republic.
The Yakut ASSR
Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Yakut Autonomous SovietThe Socialist Republic existed from 1922 to 1991. During the Great Patriotic War, more than 49,000 citizens of this ASSR fought at the front, and some of them were awarded the great title of Hero of the Soviet Union. Today the Yakut ASSR is no longer there, but a little has changed, the whole territory has been transformed into the Republic of Sakha. It is part of the Russian Federation and is part of the Far Eastern Federal District.
Autonomous Crimean SSR
Like other autonomous republics of Russia, Crimeaalso has its own history and personality. The Autonomous Crimean SSR was previously part of the RSFSR. Its formation occurred in 1921, on October 18, and on June 25, 1946 the autonomy was abolished, and the Crimea was renamed into the Crimean region.
- 1948 - Sevastopol receives the status of republican subordination of the RSFSR.
- In 1954, April 26, the Crimean region is transferred to the Ukrainian SSR.
- 1991 - the Crimean ASSR was rebuilt according to the results of the referendum.
- In 1992, on February 26, it was renamed the Republic of Crimea.
- 1992 (May 5) - The Supreme Council of the Crimea adopts an act on the sovereign state of the Republic of Crimea.
- 1992 (May 6) - the Constitution of the Republic of Crimea is adopted.
- 1993 (June 14) - the post of the President of the ARC is introduced.
- February 4, 1994 elected the first president, he was Yuri A. Meshkov.
Constitution of the ARC corresponded to the ConstitutionUkraine, it was adopted in 1998, on October 21. During the Crimean crisis (February - March 2014) the Crimea proclaimed independence. After the referendum, the territory of the Crimea, together with Sevastopol, became part of the great Russian Federation.
To this day, Ukraine does not recognize the entry of the Crimea intothe composition of the Russian Federation and considers the territory of the ARC and Sevastopol as occupied. Nevertheless, the majority of the population of the Crimean peninsula believe that they are not Ukrainians at all, but rather Russian people. Even earlier studies have shown that the Ukrainian language is native to only a small proportion of the population (10% of people), 77% said that only Russian is native to them, but the rest chose Crimean Tatar (13% of people). But despite the fact that some residents have different native languages, 97% of the population of Crimea use Russian-speaking speech for communication.
Autonomous republics and districts after the collapse of the USSR
With the passage of time everything changes, includingstate, the Soviet Union was no exception. After the collapse of the USSR, the autonomous republic is only history, they ceased to exist as such (the exception is ARC) in the new state. Today autonomous republics exist in Azerbaijan (the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic) and Georgia (Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia and the Autonomous Republic of Adjara). How many autonomous republics in Russia? Not at all, they all stayed in the Soviet Union, but there are four autonomous regions: Khanty-Mansiysk, Chukchi, Yamalo-Nenets and Nenets.
Autonomous counties (AO)
Although an autonomous republic is only a story,nevertheless, it is not forgotten. Autonomous regions replaced the republics. The Autonomous Okrug is one of six types of subjects of the Russian Federation, formed on a national-territorial basis. This status is determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and other normative acts, which is adopted by legislative and executive bodies.
The Autonomous Okrug is an equal subject of the Russian Federation and is characterized by such signs as:
- own legislation (charter and other NAPs);
- own territory (it can not be changed without the consent of the subject) and the population;
- independence in resolving issues that relate to the jurisdiction of the subjects of the Russian Federation (only within the authority of the JSC);
- the opportunity to participate independently ininternational and foreign economic relations, the district has the full right to enter into agreements (including trading), both at the federal and international levels.
If the JSC is unable to regulate any relations with the territories or regions in which it is included, then it has the right to enter into an agreement with it, on the basis of which the incident will be settled.
Nenets Autonomous Okrug
Nenets AO is another subject of the RussianFederation, which is part of the Arkhangelsk region (based on the Charter of the Arkhangelsk region). Refers to the North-West Federal District. It is considered the most sparsely populated subject of the Russian Federation. The administrative capital is Naryan-Mar, a city with a population of 22,912 people. This district was founded in 1929. In the west it borders on the Arkhangelsk region, and in the east it adjoins the Yamal-Nenets autonomous region.
The subject of the Russian Federation is Ugra(The Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug). Based on the charter of the Tyumen region, Ugra is part of the Tyumen region itself, the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug is an equal subject of Russia. He refers to the Urals Federal District, and was formed in 1930. The Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area is an economically self-sufficient donor region.
Khanty-Mansiysk is the administrative center of this district.
Chukotka Autonomous District
It is located next to the Republic of Sakha(Yakutia), the Kamchatka Krai, and also borders with the Magadan Region, and in the east - with the United States. The whole territory of the district is the area of the Far North. The administrative capital of the Chukotka Autonomous District is the city of Anadyr.
The Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District
It is part of the Tyumen region (according to itsstatute), but at the same time - an equal subject of the Russian Federation. This district was formed in 1930. Its administrative center is the city of Salekhard. The Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District is bordered by the Nenets Autonomous District, Yugra (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District), the Krasnoyarsk Territory, and the Republic of Komi. An interesting fact: in 2011, this JSC produced 7.1% of all oil in the country.
The main difference between the autonomous region (republic)from the Autonomous Okrug lies in the fact that the region though has its own charter, but it can not enter the composition of other entities, as well as include them in itself. This article ends here, and I really want to believe that after reading it, you will learn the answers to your questions and understand that the autonomous region and the autonomous republic are not the same thing.