Teenage crime in Russia
In a country with a high crime situationthere is a threatening level of juvenile delinquency. In a society in this case, conditions are formed for involving minors in illegal activities. In such a situation, legal norms should provide an adequate response of the state to what is happening. Let us further consider the problems of juvenile delinquency.
For all articles provided for in the Code,punishment for minors is applied from 16 years. However, in the Criminal Code there are a number of norms, the responsibility for which comes from 14 years. The latter include articles:
- 105 - "Murder."
- 111 - "Deliberate infliction of grave damage to health".
- 126 - "The Abduction of Man."
- 112 - "Deliberate harm to the health of moderate severity".
- 131 - "Rape".
- 158 - "Theft".
- 132 - "Violent acts of a sexual nature."
- 163 - "Extortion".
- 162 - "Robbery".
- 161 - "Robbery."
- 166 - "Illegal seizure of a vehicle without the purpose of theft".
- 167 (part 2) - "Deliberate damage / destruction of property in the presence of aggravating circumstances."
- 206 - "Taking of hostages".
- 205 - "Terrorism".
- 213 (parts 2 and 3) - "Hooliganism in the presence of aggravating circumstances."
- 214 - "Vandalism".
- 226 - "Extortion / theft of ammunition, weapons, explosives or explosive devices".
- 267 - "Disposal of communication routes or vehicles".
- 229 - "Extortion / theft of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances".
Features of punishments
Under the law, the law refers to persons whothe moment of committing the act reached 14 years, but they were not yet 18. Not all types of punishment can be applied to such subjects. In particular, imprisonment can not last more than 10 years, and correctional labor for more than a year. Serving of punishment, as a rule, is carried out in educational colonies of the strengthened or general regime. When passing a verdict, the court takes into account the living conditions of the minor, the features of mental development, and the degree of influence of the elders. Non-attainment of majority is considered a mitigating circumstance. Adolescents may be subject to the following penalties:
- Compulsory or corrective work.
- Prohibition of any activity.
- Imprisonment for a fixed period. If the act of small or medium gravity is committed for the first time, the court may release the minor from responsibility and in relation to him, compulsory educational measures may be applied.
- A warning.
- Imputation of duty to make amends for the damage.
- Transfer under parental supervision or under the control of a specialized state agency.
- Restriction of leisure, the establishment of special rules of conduct.
A minor may apply severalmeasures simultaneously. The warning consists in explaining to the person of the harm that it caused, as well as the consequences that arose from his actions. The subject can compensate for the damage only by earning a living. The law includes not only salaries, but also scholarships and other payments. In the case of systematic non-compliance of minors with prescribed rules, educational measures are canceled, and the materials of his case are sent to the court, where the question of bringing him to responsibility under the Criminal Code is being considered.
The influence of adults
There are various reasons for the teenagecrime. Not the last place among them is taken by the negative influence of adults. In practice, there are many cases when minors are involved in illegal activities together with older persons. As instigators, recidivists often act. In fact, they commit dangerous crimes by teenagers. At the same time, they often avoid responsibility.
Considering the causes of juvenile delinquency,it should be noted that many minors inclined not to comply with the norms established in society go to meet adults, in return receiving from them a reward in the form of things that they themselves stolen.
In some cases, the role of adults is manifested inactions not directly related to the commission of a specific unlawful act. However, the elders have a negative impact on the adolescent, contributing to immoral, immoral behavior. In particular, this refers to the sexual development of minors. The participation of adults in sexual maturation forms a fertile ground, on which teenage crime is then cultivated. The statistics show that about one in every three minors who committed an illegal act early started their sex life. More than half of them had sexual contact with adult women and girls.
Solving the problems of juvenile delinquency,experts note that during the formation of transitional and intermediate forms of temperament there is a certain inconsistency in the formation of inhibitory reactions. In juveniles with pronounced aggressive behavior, there is a weakening of awareness of the significance of verbal stimuli. It is this category of violators that is called difficult to master. Children's juvenile delinquency differs from adults in that juveniles commit acts without thinking about the consequences. As a rule, they are driven by a sudden arising and rapidly passing attraction to an object. That is why in the investigation of acts against the person committed by minors, it is necessary to use a special approach and exercise caution.
Aggressive behavior is formed by increasedemotionality, the predominance of excitation over inhibition. These properties are enhanced by immediate experiences. This explains why a minor is easier than an adult to realize in a state of affect illegal intent with the use of violence. Carrying out the analysis of juvenile delinquency, many psychologists base their conclusions on the fact that the specific nature of the nervous system can not influence the form of the manifestation of a particular action. Meanwhile, violence acts as an expression, not an illegal behavioral act. A vivid example, in particular, can serve as a crime based on imitation.
The influence of physical development
Teenage crime in many casesis directly dependent on the nature of puberty. At the same time, it affects not only the functioning of internal organs and the work of the brain. Specificity of puberty determines the nature and behavior of the minor. This is particularly evident when considering acts related to infringement of the sexual sphere of the victim (rape, etc.). When studying the subjective side of such a crime as hooliganism, it is necessary to take into account that the development of the muscular apparatus, the bone system, affects the adolescents' awareness of their strength. Many minors are proud of their physical condition, they are trying to demonstrate strength. This often results in aggressive and violent actions.
Teenage crime: statistics
For an extended period, the resultsStudies of the criminal situation indicate an increase in the number of unlawful acts committed by minors. At the same time, the growth of juvenile delinquency was also noted in the years of the USSR. This trend continues today. At present, the statistics of juvenile delinquency in Russia is as follows:
- 40% of minors are convicted of theft;
- 13% - for robbery;
- 14% - for robbery;
- 5% for murder.
In total, the educational colonies contain 12.7thousand people. In the Russian Federation there are 3 institutions for girls aged 14-18. According to the new Criminal Code, up to 20 years of age can be sent to educational colonies. More than 70% of convicts and those serving sentences have no education.
Teenage crime in Russia
Over the past decade,increase in the number of acts committed by minors. At the same time, juvenile delinquency grows 7 times faster than a change in the total number of the population of this age group. In some regions, minors define the crime situation as a whole. So, youth and teenage criminality in Murmansk, Sakhalin, Kemerovo, Kamchatka, Arkhangelsk areas is especially developed. Here, minors commit every third illegal act.
All the years during whichjuvenile delinquency, the Russian Federation is included in the list of sovereign states of the former USSR, where it was the highest. On average, it was noted that every 5 years it increased by 14-17%. The growth of juvenile delinquency since 1975 was accompanied by a reduction or a very slight increase in the total number of this category of the population. Along with this, there was an aggravation of the criminal situation in general across the country. Crime covered all segments of the population, but in the juvenile group it was almost always the most intense.
Negative trends were noted in those periods,when sufficiently severe punitive measures were introduced for minors. In 1973-1984, the increase in the conviction of adolescents outpaced the increase in the number of crimes identified by this group. At the same time, the total number of minors sentenced to imprisonment during this period was significant. In 1981-1985 years. the average annual number of convicts became the largest for all post-revolutionary time. A significant correction to the statistical results can be recorded latency. Due to registration defects, poor detection of unlawful acts of minors, actual indicators are more 3-4 times officially reflected data.
Disadvantages of the system
The practice of combating juvenile delinquencyleads not only to the known distortions in the overall picture due to defects in the registration of acts, but also to incorrect and inaccurate criminal and legal policies with regard to prosecuted and investigated cases, as well as the execution of punishment. The trial of the deeds is carried out by means of fragmentation of reality. This is often due to the reluctance of investigators to identify all participants in crime, all episodes, links, etc. In practice, it turns out that the thefts are allegedly committed without the traffickers and gunners, speculation - without the organizers of the purchase, drug addicts act independently, without manufacturers and distributors, and so on. All these circumstances cause the distortion of the crime picture. Decrease in juvenile delinquency, thus, occurs artificially: the total number of actors who committed an act decreases, the age-varying groups participating in them, and so on.
Criminological reasons that influence the development of crime among adolescents include:
- An increase in the population in the group of minors.
- Slow rates of implementation of activities aimed at improving the material well-being of families.
- Low quality of life of the population. First of all, this concerns large families and single parents.
- Excessive employment of mothers forced to work and support life, raise children.
- Insufficient number of educational school and preschool institutions.
- Poor organization of consumer services.
In addition, juvenile delinquency is exacerbated by the following factors:
- Unsatisfactory educational conditions in families.
- Inadequate assistance to parents by teachers.
- Inadequate training of specialists who conduct educational work in children's institutions.
- Bad work of commissions dealing with cases of minors, law enforcement agencies.
Negative impact on the situation has andformalism in the work of a number of public organizations whose activities should be aimed at supporting children's institutions, schools, families, the police, the court, the prosecutor's office and the prevention of juvenile delinquency.
Measures to improve the situation
Currently, prevention of adolescentcrime is administered by the KDN. The commissions are directly called upon to ensure the interaction of various parts of the law enforcement system. However, in practice, there is often a poor performance of the KDN. This situation is determined by the large volume of cases compared with the judiciary. Preparatory proceedings and the direct examination of materials are carried out by one, often not released from other duties, the responsible officer of the commission.
To resolve the situation, it is necessary to forma special body of professional social workers. Their activities should include family support activities. These workers should interact with children growing up in dysfunctional families, orphaned children. It is also necessary to clearly define the legal form of such activities. Today, a set of additional measures has already been developed and is being implemented. They are directed:
- To improve the health of adolescents, their mental, physical and mental condition.
- Legal allocation of state activities,society and family on the education of minors as a special sphere that requires maximum privileges and advantages in comparison with other areas of social and industrial infrastructure.
- Timely and full compensation to teenagers of losses caused by loss of parents or a family's disadvantage.
- Overcoming irresponsibility for the condition and fate of minors, crippled by the subjects that carry out their upbringing.
- Formation of conditions for the preservation, improvement and realization of children's creative and labor potential.
The state policy provides for:
- The solution of key tasks related to overcominghereditary pathologies, reduction of fertility from subjects suffering from drug addiction and alcoholism, anomalies of physical and mental development. Within the framework of this direction, measures are taken aimed at eliminating the negative impact on the families of a variety of chemical, including medical, drugs, environmental processes, improving the obstetric service, etc.
- Unconditional and priority allocation of material resources, support of each family is not possible, but in a really necessary amount, taking into account inflationary and other economic phenomena.
- Formation and development of the service of help,having a highly qualified staff, a sufficient material base. Its creation should be accompanied by a simultaneous reduction of divisions, especially in the structure of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, designed to inspect and control families.
- Formation of technical, material and other conditions to ensure the systematic participation of minors in affordable and well-paid work.
Currently, the problem of juvenile delinquencyis very acute. Often undertaken by society and the state of measures is extremely insufficient to correct the situation. Nevertheless, a sufficiently large amount of work has already been done, and he gave a number of positive results. Measures are actively being taken to significantly change the interaction with minors in conditions of educational labor colonies. Of course, to improve the situation, it is necessary to do some colossal work. At the same time, interaction should be carried out not only directly with minors themselves, but also with employees of authorized bodies, members of public organizations. Often after a not very happy childhood, detention, trial, jail, the correctional institution becomes not the worst place to stay. At liberty no one cares about convicts. In the colony, for someone for the first time in life, they are paid attention. They are dressed, fed. They sleep in a warm room. And no matter how paradoxical it may sound, they lead a completely normal life.