Separate sentence members: concept, table, use
What are separate member clauses? What are they like? When do members of a sentence stand apart, and when not? In this article we will deal with the fact that there are separate members of a sentence, into which categories they are divided, and also with what rules of isolation exist.
The concept of separate members of the proposal
So, let's begin, as it should be in such cases, with the definition. Separate sentence members are such minor members that are distinguished by intonation and meaning. Allocation is done so that they acquire “independence” within the whole phrase.
How are isolated members of the proposal?
Allocation during oral conversation occurs using intonation. If we talk about the letter, then there the situation is somewhat different. To separate the isolated terms of the sentence in the text used commas.
Comparison of segregated members with non-segregated
It is worth noting one simple fact: the syntactic weight of isolated members is much greater than that of their opposites. Consequently, stylistic expressiveness increases. We can not say about the logical selection.
What can be isolated in Russian?
Of all the members of the proposal to isolate can only be minor. The main members in the proposal have never been isolated, and in the near future this is not expected.
Why do you need isolation?
It allows you to draw attention to a particular information fragment. In addition, the fragment can be presented in more detail by resorting to isolation. As mentioned earlier, isolated minor clauses have greater weight and greater autonomy. Immediately, we note that the isolation can be very different. These are additions, circumstances, and definitions. Then we will try to deal with each of these categories, give specific examples for each group.
Separation of clarifications
First of all, let us examine what are the separate clarifying members of the sentence and why they are needed. As the name implies, such minor members of the proposal serve to concretize, clarify.They are inseparably linked by a syntactic function with one or another member of a sentence, the meaning of which they, in fact, explain.
When are clarifying members of a clause separated?
1. Separate clarifying members of a clause may be defined. Example: “It was dark around, even very dark, I would say. So much so that it seemed that someone in this world just turned off the whole world. ” In this case, the turnover “even very dark” has a clarifying meaning and is comma-separated from both sides.
It is worth noting that definitions with a clarifying value can be distinguished by writing with a dash. Example: “There were a lot of things in the house - both his personal and those that clearly belonged to him”.
2. Isolate circumstances with an appropriate value. They can be expressed by nouns with prepositions as well as adverbs. For example:
- “It took only a second - and somewhere close the explosion thundered, right behind him.”
- “Once here, in a quiet, little-known village, life flowed.” The third example: “It happened quite recently, just a couple of days ago.”
Explanation: in the first and second example, the clarification has the character of a place.In the third - the nature of time. Often the separation of clarifications depends on the author of the place.
3. Separate clarifications that are attached with the words “or”, “that is,” “precisely”. For example:
- “Whatever his name was. It was rumored that he was either a wizard, or a magician, or a superman. ”
- “It was a weighted, individual, that is, not a decision imposed by anyone.”
- “Very much spoke about the terrible fight that took place here, namely: helmets and scraps of uniforms, craters from artillery shells, shells.”
4. The clarifying members of the sentence are separated, which are joined with words such as “even”, “especially”, “including”, “in particular”. For example:
- “Everyone remembers that no one managed to defeat the magician, even those who tried to make it a mob.”
- “Victory was a joy for everyone, especially for those who sacrificed a lot for this.”
- "Another second - the squad went on a breakthrough, and he included."
- “Many countries welcome Russian tourists with great joy, in particular Turkey is doing it now.”
Types of isolated members of the proposal include a group of additions.This is nothing but case forms applied to nouns. They are used with such combinations as “with the exception of”, “instead of”, “except”, “along with”, “excluding”, “besides”. Thus, it can be noted that the phrases in this use have the meanings corresponding to the substitution and inclusion, exclusion.
Separation occurs depending on what semantic load is available, whether the author has the desire to isolate this fragment:
- “He felt more or less stable, except that his leg was still a little sore.”
- “In addition to the rain promised on the eve, the sky was lit up with branches of violet lightning, leaving a bright trace on the retina for an instant.”
- “Along with questions that were waiting for their permission to work, something had to be done with household chores.”
- “Besides all this, there was another significant flaw in the product that decisively kept from buying.”
- "And everything was fine, except, of course, some points."
Note that if the preposition “instead of” is used in the meaning of “instead”, then it is not isolated. Example: “In exchange for all the promised money, as he thought, friends, he received only promises, words and nothing more.”
Separation of circumstances
Separate sentences are called, as we found out earlier, minor terms, allocated intonation and with the help of punctuation marks. When are circumstances separated? That's about it further and will be discussed.
- A circumstance is separated by commas from two sides irrespective of its location in the text, if it is expressed in the case of participial circulation. Example: “Together, they, with bated breath and with bated breath, waited for the shadow to slip further, past them.” Explanation: here “hiding and holding breath” are homogeneous and isolated members of the sentence, expressed in the impartial circulation. There is an exception to this rule. Departicidal circulation is not isolated if it is a phraseological unit.
- A circumstance is separated by commas from two sides, regardless of its location in the text, if it is expressed by a single-part adverb. Example: “He left without turning around, although he understood what he had done now.” Explanation: here, “without turning around,” acts as a single participle. There is also an exception. A single participle is not isolated if it merges with an adverb in its meaning.Example: “While someone was telling me something, I was standing thoughtful.”
- Typically, two verbal participations, connected by the union “and” (as well as two single germinal participations), are isolated as one turnover. Example: “I, despite the mistakes of others and not listening to common sense, continued to tread my own way persistently.” Explanation: here “despite the mistakes of others” and “not listening to common sense” are homogeneous implicated turns. However, they refer to the same word, so they are equal. Therefore, a comma is not put between them.
- A circumstance is separated if it is presented as a comparative turnover. Usually in comparative turns words like “exactly”, “like”, “like” are used. There are some exceptions in the separation of comparative revolutions, they are not isolated in all cases. In general, the separation of comparisons and comparative turns refers to the separation of secondary members of sentences only occasionally, so we will not talk much about this in this article. Example: “My head ached as if it had been walked by something massive”.
There is such a notion in the Russian syntax - optional.This means “at the discretion of the author.” So, optional circumstances are separated in two cases:
- If the circumstance is presented in the form of a noun. In this case, the pretext may or may not be present. But most of all there are cases when circumstances that are expressed by a combination of nouns with certain pretexts are isolated. These are: “thanks”, “despite”, “contrary to”, “in accordance with”, “depending on”, “to avoid”, “in view of”. Examples:
“Due to his free time, he was able to solve almost all of his problems.”
“Despite the rain, they decided to go on a picnic.”
- “Contrary to threats, he did not change his policy at all.”
- “In accordance with the plan, all tasks were completed within the designated time frame.”
“Depending on what decision is made, a different fate awaited him.”
- “In order to avoid a fight, people who were nearby led them to different corners.”
“In view of unforeseen circumstances, it was necessary to solve something quickly, but thoughtfully.”
- If there is a clarification of the place, time. Example: "And yet it was impossible not to notice that here, in this room, forgotten by civilization, some company once worked and flourished."
How can you find isolated circumstances in the text? To do this, you must first find an ordinary circumstance. And then see if it is really isolated with punctuation marks. After that, you can begin to analyze the question of what is expressed in a separate circumstance. The easiest way to start the search is with part-time turnovers, as well as single share partitions. Comparative turnovers are also seen better, which, as you remember, are also separate circumstances on a par with clarifications of the place and time, the manner of action of the person. There is a questionnaire, which is called “Test“ Separate sentence members ”. It is usually given job search for isolations. There is a task, according to which in the text it is necessary to find a separate circumstance, expressed by impartial circulation. It is logical that there will be not just one participle, but some set of dependent words. Clarifying circumstances can be found just as easily. To do this, simply search for words that are expressed by nouns in oblique cases. Next to them should be adverbs, prepositions. This, in most cases, and there are separate circumstances, expressed by the clarifications of the place and time.
Signs of isolation
According to the rules of the Russian language, the signs of isolated members of a sentence can be divided into four groups. The first group - semantic signs. The second is grammatical. The third is intonation (that is, pauses and intonation that emits). And the last, fourth group is punctuation signs. As mentioned earlier, comma marks are most often punctuation marks. But it is possible that the isolation will be made with a dash. Author punctuation marks - the thing is still quite complicated.
The role of isolation in the Russian language
Separation often allows one or another fragment of a text or phrase to be endowed with some special meaning, giving it informational weight different from that of other parts of the sentence. That is, due to isolation, a kind of emphasis is placed on certain facts. During a conversation, we often, talking about something, without even noticing it, single out some words and even phrases with intonation. Accordingly, we are trying to achieve attention to these fragments, they play a special role in a particular situation. This may introduce some refinement as well.Thus, summing up, we can say that the role of separate members of the proposal lies in increasing the information load.
Test “Isolated Members of the Offer”
Before turning to the final part of the article, where we will summarize it, I would like to write my own, unique quiz with suggestions to help the reader consolidate this knowledge about the separation of secondary members. It may be easy for someone to test, but in fact it is these kinds of tasks that are used to reveal the knowledge of students in secondary educational institutions. Then there will be a task for which you need to give an answer, then answer options, and after that an explanation for those who answered the task incorrectly and the right answer.
1. Which numbers correctly indicate ALL commas that should appear in the text? “He went to the lake (1) which was poured in the sunlight (2) and went somewhere further.”
Options: a) only 1; b) only 2; c) 1 and 2.
Explanation: “which shimmered in the sunlight and went somewhere further” is a construction consisting of two participial revolutions. The sacrament turn is one example of a separate definition.“It was shimmering in the sunlight” and “it went somewhere further” - two equal participatory turns that refer to the same word. Hence, a comma is not put between them.
The correct answer is: a.
2. In all the following cases, the sentence will be immediately written, in which you need to correctly place the commas. “Everything was good (1) except for the fact (2) that on the horizon a group of clouds (4) predicting a thunderstorm (5) and a heavy downpour were looming on the horizon”.
Options: a) 1, 2, 5; b) 1, 3, 4; c) 2, 5; d) 1, 2, 4.
Explanation: “Except” is an example of a separate add-on. It does not stand at the beginning of a sentence and not at the end, therefore it is separated from both sides at once. “Gathered into one group of clouds” - a common definition, which is expressed in participial trafficking. At the site of the pass (3) there will be no isolation. But between the "clouds" and "predicting" the necessary comma. “Thunderstorm” and “rainstorm” are two equal additions that refer to the same word. Therefore, between them a comma is not needed.
The correct answer is:
3. "The sky (1) gradually (2) grew dark (3) occasionally lit up with lightning ramifications (4) and somewhere in the distance (5) there were peals of thunder (6) foreshadowing bad weather."
Answers: a) 1, 2, 5; b) 2, 3, 4, 5; c) 3, 4, 6; d) 1, 5, 6.
Explanation: Gaps 1 and 2 will not contain a comma, because there is no clarification there. “Occasionally lit up with lightning ramifications” is a common isolated circumstance, expressed in the impartial circulation. It will be isolated from two sides. “Foreshadowing bad weather” is a participial turn at the end of a sentence. It is separated from one side.
The correct answer is c.
So, what did we find out during this article?
- First, the use of isolated members of a sentence is done with the aim of endowing a detached fragment with independence and increased information load.
- Secondly, commas and dashes are used to isolate punctuation, and intonation is used when speaking.
- Thirdly, isolated members of the proposal can only be secondary.
Separate members of the proposal, the table for which will be presented later, may have the purpose of clarifying the time and mode of action, place. Often they are also expressed as participles, participles and revolutions. Cases with comparisons are not excluded at all.
One of the sections of the syntax is precisely the isolated sentence clauses.The Russian language assumes the presence of such minor isolated members as: additions, circumstances, definitions, clarifications and comparisons.