Radiation safety: rules and regulations
Nuclear and radiation safety is of particular importance today. In this regard, international cooperation in this area is carried out in various directions. Let us further consider what constitutes radiation safety and protection.
The world community, being concerned about the state of affairs in the nuclear power industry, is taking topical measures of radiation safety. Their implementation depends largely on the degree of interaction of states. Among the main areas of security should be highlighted:
- Control over the proper operation of nuclear power plants and the provision of immediate assistance in the event of an accident.
- Development and adoption of safety rules within international organizations.
- Exchange of information about faults and equipment failures.
- Conducting joint research in the field of nuclear safety.
Ensuring radiation safety at the international level is carried out by the adoption of relevant acts.Most of these documents were developed within the framework of the IAEA with the participation of other organizations. Among these acts:
- Radiation Safety Standards (NRB).The requirements contained in them were approved not only by the IAEA, but also by WHO, ILO and a number of other international organizations.
- Radiation safety rules.They are collected in a special code. These provisions regulate the radiation safety of personnel of mines and enterprises engaged in the processing of hazardous raw materials.
Purpose of the effort
Radiation safety standards are established to maintain the radiation of installations at an optimally achievable minimum level. This task should be solved both during the direct operation of the equipment and in the event of a catastrophe. Compliance with the requirements allows you to prevent exposure of both individuals and their descendants, as well as all of humanity as a whole.
It was created to study the experience of safe use of nuclear power plants in the world, as well as ways to facilitate and assist state bodies in developing countries whose activities are carried out in this area. The control group formed at the IAEA is involved in the development and preparation of a variety of documents.The focus of the work is on finding the most effective technical methods for preventing accidents. To this end, the Security Series is published regularly. It sets out standards, criteria and requirements that are mandatory for compliance with the use of atomic energy for industrial (peaceful) purposes. The IAEA also regularly prepares Programs according to which radiation safety standards are developed. They are intended for government agencies of the countries participating in the IAEA. These provisions regulate and control activities related to the implementation of programs for the development of the nuclear power industry.
Its development serves as another major activity. Principles and standards are created taking into account the recommendations provided by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The system developed by the IAEA combines two elements. First of all, radiation safety should concern people. In this regard, general measures are being developed for a particular person. The second element is the provision of radiation safety during the operation of a separate radiation source.
Radiation safety includes permissible dose standards per person. They are established both for one controlled source, and for several. In the latter case, an upper limit is established, summing the doses emanating from several installations. Also, radiation safety includes additional activities. In particular, they include a system for recording the total number of doses that emanate from a source, regardless of the time and place of exposure.
This document occupies a special place among others. Convention No. 115 regulates the radiation safety of employees of enterprises. Its action extends to all types of activity that may entail the effect of radiation on workers. The Convention defines the procedure for establishing the maximum permissible radiation doses and the maximum amount of substances capable of entering the body. According to the provisions of the document, it is not allowed to allow persons up to 16 years old to work with radiating installations, if it is prohibited by a medical certificate. The administration of the enterprise is imposed the obligation to measure the radiation levels at the places of the professional activities of employees,inform workers of the results and make the necessary efforts to reduce the concentration of radioactive substances. States, in turn, should bring the Law on Radiation Safety into line with the Convention.
Responsibilities of the IAEA Member States
According to the Convention on Nuclear Safety, States must take the necessary measures to prevent damage to the health and life of people when operating the relevant facilities. The governments of the countries designate an authorized body whose competence includes the regulation and implementation of the legal framework in this area. This institution is vested with the relevant powers, duties, rights, human and financial resources necessary to implement the tasks.
Radiation safety: NRB-99
In Russia, there are several legal acts regulating this sphere. In particular, on the territory of the Russian Federation, the Law "On the Radiation Safety of the Public" and others have been adopted. In accordance with these activities, the operation of installations is subject to mandatory licensing. An enterprise that does not have permits cannot carry out work and use the appropriate equipment.According to domestic legislation, a system of regulatory control and analysis of nuclear facilities operates in the Russian Federation. It is necessary to verify compliance with the accepted prescriptions and license conditions. When violations are detected in cases of accidents and in other established situations, appropriate measures should be implemented, including, among other things, changing, suspending or revoking licenses.
Prior to commissioning, as well as throughout the entire cycle of operation, enterprises should conduct a systematic assessment of the state of the equipment. Such an analysis is reflected in detail in the relevant documentation. For subsequent evaluations, previous information should be updated to reflect experience gained and new information. The data is considered under the authority of the regulatory authority. By analyzing, inspecting, testing, observing, inspections of nuclear installations should be carried out in order to maintain constant compliance with the technical condition of the equipment, as well as the conditions of its operation with the design requirements, national and international standards.In any mode of operation of the aggregates, the exposure of employees and citizens not involved in the enterprise must be maintained at optimally attainable minimum levels.
The activities and actions of employees and the public in the event of disasters are also regulated in the above Convention. For plants, appropriate emergency plans are developed. They must be periodically tested. These plans cover activities that must be carried out in the event of an accident. The provisions of the Convention regulate various safety issues of installations. These include site selection, operation, construction, design of units. Discussion of issues related to radiation safety is carried out at periodic meetings in which state representatives participate. The IAEA plays the role of the Secretariat at such meetings. The Agency convenes, prepares and maintains meetings, as well as provides the parties with the necessary information that has been prepared or received in accordance with the provisions contained in the Convention.
Radiation safety is a state of protection of people living today and subsequent generations from the negative effects of ionizing radiation. The task of preventing harmful effects on ordinary citizens, employees, and the environment is considered fulfilled if the principles on which the existing requirements and standards in the considered area are followed are followed.
This principle provides for the prohibition of any type of activity related to the operation of radiating sources, in which the benefits gained for society as a whole and for each person in particular will not exceed the threat of possible harm that will be caused by radiation. This provision should be applied in the process of making decisions by authorized bodies when designing new installations and facilities, issuing permits and approving technical documentation for the use of equipment, as well as in the event of changes in the operating conditions of the units. Applied to a radiation accident, this principle applies to protective measures.In this case, as a measure of benefit, the dose prevented by these actions should be estimated. At the same time, measures aimed at restoring control over radiating sources are subject to mandatory execution.
This principle is aimed at ensuring that the individual and collective irradiating doses are maintained at the achievable and low level. This takes into account the economic and social factors of each individual state. Under emergency conditions, instead of the established dose limits, there will be increased concentrations. In this regard, the principle of optimization should be applied with respect to protective measures, taking into account preventable damage and radiation dose.
The rationing principle requires the prevention of exceeding the individual exposure limits set at the international and federal levels. It must be observed by all enterprises and persons whose activities are carried out in the considered area and on which the degree of radiation exposure on people depends.
Ways to accomplish tasks
Radiation safety at the facility and beyond is provided by:
- The quality of the project.
- A reasonable choice of terrain and site on which the object will be located.
- Establishment of physical protection devices for radiating sources.
- Zoning of the territory within the radius of the objects representing the greatest threat and within them.
- Compliance with the operating conditions of process equipment and systems.
- Timely sanitary and epidemiological analysis.
- Licensing of activities related to radiating sources.
- Development and implementation of measures aimed at ensuring the safety of employees and citizens who are not involved in hazardous production, with the normal operation of the facility, during its reconstruction or decommissioning.
- Conducting training sessions to improve the literacy of citizens in this area.
Work with employees of enterprises
The radiation safety of workers is ensured by:
- Establishment of restrictions on access to work with radiating sources by sex, age, state of health, degree of previous exposures and other parameters.
- Knowledge and following the rules of work with hazardous installations.
- Creation of production conditions that meet the prescribed regulations in the field of Belarus.
- Sufficiency of screens, barriers, distances from radiating sources, limiting the time of working with them.
- The use of personal protective equipment.
- The organization of warning systems about the level of radiation.
- The implementation of effective measures aimed at protecting employees in case of possible increased exposure in the event of an accident and at the risk of its occurrence.
Preservation of health and life of citizens
The radiation safety of the civilian population is ensured by:
- Creating conditions for the life and activities of people in accordance with the existing requirements of the Republic of Belarus.
- The organization of the control system. The establishment of quotas for irradiation of various sources.
- The effectiveness of the development, planning and implementation of the necessary activities in the field of RB.
- Organization of the system of informing on the existing radiation situation.
- Providing citizens with free gas masks, respirators and other PPE.
Control of work
Organizational measures aimed at ensuring the safety of activities are:
- Registration of the order or work order.
- Supervision of the activities.
- Registration of breaks and completion of work.
The legislation provides for a number of sanctions for violations of accepted RB requirements. In particular, it provides for criminal, disciplinary, administrative liability. Punishment in the framework of the Administrative Code is appointed when:
- Violations of sanitary and epidemiological standards for living quarters, exploitation of public, industrial buildings, equipment, transport, buildings and other things.
- Failure to comply with regulations on the organization of catering for citizens, the importation of products, including industrial, technical, chemical and other purposes.
- Violation of the requirements that apply to water bodies, drinking supply of the population, the state of atmospheric air in settlements and in industrial areas, storage, collection and disposal of waste, planning the development of territories.
- Failure of preventive measures.
The administrative penalty is imposed by a resolution of authorized persons whose competence is to conduct supervision in the sphere of the Republic of Belarus.Criminal responsibility arises as a result of more serious violations that have resulted in material damage, harm to the health and life of citizens. The punishment for these crimes is set out in the Criminal Code. Bringing to disciplinary responsibility is carried out in accordance with applicable law.