Prevention of writing and reading violations
One of the necessary conditions for the prevention of violations of writing and reading is the early recognition of the warning signs of speech underdevelopment. The key point in determining possible difficulties in writing and reading is the study of the phonetic-phonemic development of children.
The mastery of the phonetic structure of the language ends in different children at different times: there are children who speak quite correctly by the time they are 3 years old; in others, some or other deficiencies are observed even at the age of 6-7 years. These discrepancies depend on a number of reasons. An important role is played by the environment of the child: the speech of those children who constantly hear the right speech, with whom they talk a lot, develops better. Of great importance for the assimilation of phonetics is the mental activity of the child, his physical condition, normal hearing, structure and mobility of the articulation apparatus. Constantly taking care of the culture of speech in general and conducting special exercises, it is possible to ensure that all children entering school fully master the phonemic system of their native language.
Timely identification of children with phonemic underdevelopment and conducting speech therapy sessions with them at preschool age (from 4-5 years old) helps prevent poor performance of many schoolchildren. The study of the deficiencies of pronunciation in children of senior preschool age with phonemic underdevelopment shows that the sequence of formation of sounds in them basically does not differ from that observed during normal development.
A sign of phonemic underdevelopment in children is the incompleteness of the formation of sounds that are distinguished by subtle articulatory (pronunciation) or acoustic (auditory) signs. These include whistling (s, s, z) and hissing (f, w, h, n) sounds, as well as sonorous (p, l), voiced and deaf, hard and soft consonants.
Characteristic for phonemic underdevelopment are the following features of the pronunciation of sounds:
- undifferentiated pronunciation of pairs or groups of sounds. In these cases, the same sound can serve as a substitute for a child of 2-3 other sounds. For example, a soft sound t` is pronounced instead of sounds c, h, w (bag - “bag”, cup - “puff”, cap - “chopper”)
- replacement of some sounds with others. Usually difficult sounds are replaced by lighter ones. For example, instead of the sound p, the sound l is used, instead of the sound w, the child says f. For some children, a whole group of whistling and hissing sounds can be replaced by sounds t, e.
- mixing sounds. This is an unsustainable use of a variety of sounds in various words. A child can use sounds in one word correctly. and in others, to replace them. So, the child, being able to pronounce the sounds of p, l in isolation, in speech utterances confuses them, replaces one with another.
The similar nature of violations of the sound side of speech should alert adults, because he speaks of the underdevelopment of phonemic hearing (the ability to distinguish speech sounds). There is a system of techniques that help in such cases to determine the degree of non-formation of phonemic hearing. These are tasks, like:
- reproduce for adults 3-4 syllabic combinations of lungs for pronouncing sounds like: pa-by-pa, pa-ba-pa
- clap your hands on a given sound, for example, a sound c among sounds t, f, h, s, c, w, etc.
- select a syllable with a certain sound. For example, syllable sa among syllables for, sha, sa, cha, scha, Ms.
- raise your hand if the word has a given sound. For example, a word with a sound with among the words sleigh, fur coat, socks, umbrella, nose, pike.
In such tasks, the child is not required to pronounce the sound, because it may make it difficult. It is important to find out the state of perception of speech sounds, so the child reacts with a certain action (claps his hands, raises his hand, a flag or a picture) if he hears a predetermined sound. These tasks allow us to determine with great certainty the possibilities of perception of sounds that are defective in pronunciation.
It is important to pay attention to the state of perception of those sounds that the child makes quite correctly. It is not uncommon for a perception of a so-called to be violated or not developed to a proper degree “Safe” sounds, i.e. pronounced correctly. In children in this group, with apparently well-pronounced pronunciation, there are significant difficulties in the perception of sounds. Such children, often unexpectedly for those around them, become unsuccessful in reading and writing.
Underdevelopment of phonemic hearing has a negative effect on children's readiness for sound word analysis.So, children find it difficult in such cases:
a) in the selection of the first sound in the word (they call either the first syllable, or the whole word). For example, in the word "beetle" the first sound "zhu" is called.
b) in the selection of pictures, including the specified sound. For example, at the sound of w pick up pictures: hat, dog, pike, bump, bag
c) in the independent design and naming of words with a given sound.
Timely identification of children with phonetic-phonemic underdevelopment, conducting specially organized training (from 4-5 years old) allows not only to correct the speech defect, but also to fully prepare them for schooling.
The most severe types of violations of reading and writing are observed in children with a general hypoplasia of speech. These children, besides the phonetic-phonemic underdevelopment, have a limited vocabulary and incorrectly grammatically form a phrase (incorrect word endings, omission of prepositions, incorrect word order in a sentence). Such children already at an early age are lagging behind in speech development. They begin to talk late (after 2-3 years), their speech is obscure to others. Not later than 3 years old they should be examined in detail by a speech therapist.Parents receive detailed advice on overcoming the lag in speech development. If necessary, children with a general underdevelopment of speech from 4 years old are sent to study at a speech therapy kindergarten. And when they enter the school they must continue to study at the school's speech therapy center, because the poverty of the vocabulary and the inability to express their thoughts lead to the fact that students at later stages do not know how to write statements and essays.
Some teachers consider dysgraphic and dyslexic errors to be ridiculous, caused by students' personal qualities: inability to listen to the teacher’s explanation, carelessness when writing, careless attitude to work. In fact, at the basis of such errors lie more serious reasons: the lack of formation of the phonetic-phonemic and lexico-grammatical aspects of speech already discussed above.
The concept of readiness to master reading and writing is not limited to the development of all aspects of the child’s oral speech, but also includes the maturation of certain non-speech functions (in particular, visual-spatial representations).The starting point in the work on the development of spatial orientations is the children's awareness of the scheme of their own body (right - left hand, foot, eye, ear). Next, the child needs to develop an orientation on the picture (which is above - below, to the right - to the left). Then actions with objects are connected (put a cube under the table, on the table, hold above the table; put the cube to the right - to the left of the ball, etc.) The child must distinguish geometric shapes, distinguish any objects by color, as well as by sign (large - small, fat - thin, narrow - wide, high - low). Great help in the development of visual-spatial representations will be provided with games with a mosaic, with cut pictures, puzzles. Work with plasticine, clay, dough is very useful; coloring pictures with pencils, especially shading small details.
Such preventive work will help the child to prepare for a clear visual perception and correct spelling of letters.