National costume of Dagestan: types and description
Dagestan has 72 nationalities. Representatives of each of them have their own national costume, which has developed historically. To date, there are often cases when skillfully manufactured national decorations are worn by elders for solemn events. They are worn even by officials.
The national costume of Dagestan, thanks to its beauty and historical significance, is appreciated by both senior and young people. They are carefully stored and handed down from generation to generation.
History of the costume
The national costume of Dagestan was polished infor many centuries, all elements were agreed upon, all the superfluous was cut off, only the most accessible, understandable and dear to people who put their conception of beauty into decoration were preserved.
In the XIX century, a favorite and common formclothes among women were shirts, similar to tunics. For girls, they served as a dress, hiding the structure of the figure and giving the effect of monumentality. At the same time, the smart furnishings in the cut were no different from everyday. Appointment of costumes was expressed through the color and texture of the fabric.
In the XIX-XX centuries, women from rich families alsoThey also wore cut-off dresses, many photos of the national costume of Dagestan are proof of this. They were sewed from expensive fabrics and put on for a solemn occasion. Such a decoration could afford only a well-off woman, as the consumption of fabric for its manufacture is considerable.
In addition, in the XIX century, widespreadreceived beshmet - outer clothing, similar to a caftan with a standing collar, which gradually gained popularity and love among the inhabitants of Dagestan. Later, it was the fitted beshmet that replaced the dress-shirt. The waist line served as the main support line, and the silhouette distinguished folds and assemblies located below the waist. There were shortened and quilted beshtets on the lining
Meaning of parts
National costumes of the peoples of Dagestan wereso diverse that for some details of clothing they determined which nationality the person belongs to. Also, decoration could tell about the status, age and financial situation of its owner. But to a greater extent this refers to women's outfits, since the men's clothes were more reserved and monotonous. They only differed in some details and patterns.
Although every Dagestani nation hadtheir own traditions, language and features in decoration, but they were also united by many basic things: chuhta, shawl, shirt in the form of a tunic, and also beshmet. And if there are questions related to how to draw a national costume of Dagestan or display it in a photo, then all these garments should be in the picture. In this case, special attention should be paid to embroidery and ornaments, which were of great importance in women's clothes. Patterns (birds, animals, trees) often had a sacred meaning, protecting their owners. The decorations for the celebrations were decorated with embroidery from silver, gold and precious stones. A special place in women's dresses was occupied by jewelry in the form of bracelets, rings and metal belts.
What the color says
Coloring of national Dagestani costumesalso has its own symbolism. Although the decorations seem too bright, but the dominant colors are white, red and black. Often a white color can be seen on festive and wedding dresses. Red symbolized prosperity and prosperity, and black spoke about mysticism and personified the protection of ancestors. Older women often chose clothes in dark colors, young single girls preferred bright elements of red, orange, blue or green.
Costumes of Dagestani men are similar to each other andpractically do not differ from the male costumes of other Caucasian peoples. The national decoration consists of a shirt, trousers that are sewn from a dense gray or black cloth, and a Circassian coat (a long narrow caftan without a collar with a wedge-shaped neckline). The outer clothing of such a plan can be of different lengths, and the sleeves are widened downwards. At the Circassian belt, men used to carry a pistol or a dagger.
Male national costume of Dagestan hasan important distinctive feature - the hat, which is a symbol of dignity and honor. To knock down this high fur cap from the head of a Caucasian man meant to insult him, but the gift of a Dagestan in the form of a papakha was a symbol of respect and friendship.
Men from the common people wore headdressesof sheepskin, but representatives of the nobility preferred papakhas from astrakhan. Thinking about how to draw a national costume of the peoples of Dagestan, do not forget about such details, because for them such things were of great importance. Of the shoes men preferred soft boots from morocco called Ichigi, they consisted of two elements.
The national costume of Dagestan is femalevarious variations of performance. Decorations differ in a variety of colors, decoration, cut and decorations. Women's clothing is much more than men's, has preserved its identity and reflects ethnic characteristics, customs and customs. The national costume of Dagestan, the figure of which is presented above, is the true proof of this.
Dagestan women's clothing is diverse inused materials, color, form, decor and artistic composition. These characteristics may indicate the social status of the possessor, age and wealth.
Historically, the headpieceis an inalienable attribute of the national costume of Dagestani women. Varied shapes and bright decorations make it one of the most interesting elements of decoration, which points to ethnicity and its aul. A variety of hats of marmots were noted by many travelers, writers and scientists. They can be divided into three large groups:
- Chuhta is a narrow long cap ofblack matter. Sometimes it was decorated with coins or fringe. Only married women had the right to wear chukta. They plaited the braids and stacked them in a special bag - a hairskin that was in the lower part of the headdress and went down on its back.
- The scarf has traditionally been preserved among the elderlywomen, young girls chose shawls. Old women folded the shawls in a triangle, wrapped their necks with one end and tied them with the other under the chin. The color of this headgear was also chosen depending on the age.
- Chalma is a piece of long matter, which is intricately wrapped around the head, originally it was worn only by men.
Dagestani footwear is distinguished by a largea variety of styles and materials used for manufacturing. She was made of leather, felt or wool. Knitted and felt footwear differs a great variety. Leather products have fewer characteristics and features. This was due to the fact that only men worked with the skin, which were more connected with the outside world and, accordingly, they were subjected to significant cultural influence from the outside.
Combinedfootwear. Women preferred leather shoes with inserts made of felt, velvet, cloth or brocade. The inserts were woven with gold and embroidered on them all manner of traditional patterns with silk threads.
Residents of highland Dagestan - avarki, lachki,darginka - wore long dresses, wide-cut shirts. They put on a sash belt on top, young girls chose brighter colors for him, but married women wore belts of more reserved shades.
Peculiar dresses on the sides of a woman run inpants made of satin, calico or calico. Dresses almost doubled and reached the knees. In addition, they wore a special cap - chuhta. It snug against my forehead and fell from behind. A special blanket was put on top. As for shoes, the girls of Nagorno-Dagestan wore leather shoes with knitted inserts and curled noses. It was not only beautiful, but also practical. Such shoes were worn for a long time and did not stray about the stones.
National costume of Dagestan womenThe Lezghian nationality was distinguished by its brightness and high cost. The main feature of the decorations was multi-layered. The girls wore silk straight dresses, wadded dresses-waltzes rushed over them.
Another distinctive characteristic of the outfitsthere was an abundance of ornaments. The clothes were decorated with silver and gold coins, precious stones and embroidery. In the choice of colors, priority was given to red, yellow, purple and green colors. The head was covered with lace handkerchiefs.
Kumychki, Chechens and Noggies
Chechens and kumyaches were considered traditionalSwinging dresses with wide long skirts. They were adorned with elaborate belts and double clasps. Of the headdresses, the girls preferred lace handkerchiefs.
Nogai suits were much likethe Central Asian clothes. The decoration was distinguished by the presence of large ornaments and jewelry made of silver. Women preferred quilted caftans-beshmet. On the head young girls wore beautiful skullcaps, and older women - kerchiefs.
The national costume of Dagestan is brightmanifestation of the culture of this people. Regardless of the differences that are associated with the history of different ethnic groups, yet all the outfits have the same characteristic features in the artistic plan. The emergence of this clothing with its roots goes back to the deep past, when its purpose was to abstract its owner from its own individual beginning. Clothing first of all demonstrated the person's involvement in a certain collective or life situation in which he was.