Modern ferrous metallurgy
Iron is the basis of life
Metals of various types form the basis of human civilization. Ferrous metallurgy occupies a leading position in modern industrial production. If you look at the periodic table of elements of Mendeleev, then you can see that the group of metals occupies about 40% of their total number. The most common metal in nature is iron. According to geophysicists, the core of our planet consists of iron. Its properties, in particular, the ability to magnetize, due to the peculiarities of the earth's atmosphere. The magnetic field formed as a result of this property protects the earth's surface from the hard influence of cosmic rays.
Despite the wide distribution of iron-containing minerals in nature, the process of obtaining metal has a complex technology. Ferrous metallurgy concentrates in itself the most different branches of human activity. First of all, it should be noted that pure iron is not found in nature.The metal is in a chemically bonded state with other elements. Most often - with oxygen. Simply put, iron oxide is the raw material for smelting metal. In order to produce smelting, it is necessary to expend a large amount of energy.
Ferrous metallurgy as a complex technology
Only experts know that a chemically pure metal - iron - does not have high structural characteristics. In order to give it strength, ductility or other parameters, various additives are added to it. An alloy of iron with carbon is called cast iron. This process operation is performed in a blast furnace. And steel is “boiled” in open-hearth furnaces. Ferrous metallurgy of Russia occupies a worthy place in the ranking of countries-producers of metal. This industry was formed and modernized over a long period.
In order to produce metal, you need to mine the ore and deliver it to the place of smelting. Directly smelting is performed in special furnaces at high temperature. To provide the necessary temperature parameters, special power coals are used. Coke is produced from high-grade coal, which is used to melt ore.Already from this short list it is clear that ferrous metallurgy needs various auxiliary production and services. Ore, in the same way as coal, is somewhere mined and delivered to the specified region. This means that there must be a developed transport system in the territory of the producing country.
Ecology and metal
At present, the world ferrous metallurgy operates on the space of the formed market. All consumers know that steel from Germany is considered the best. Although the quality of the metal produced in the Ural plants, is not inferior to the German. The difference, of course, can be seen, but not in the parameters of the final product, but in technology. Production of ferrous metals is accompanied by significant damage to the environment. Currently, the world community pays close attention to these circumstances.