Menorrhagia - what is it and how to treat it?
Every woman has a different menstrual cycle and is different from others. For someone, it works like a clock, but for someone it becomes a regularity of its irregularity. Perhaps every woman experienced pain during menstruation, and someone has menorrhagia. What it is? In simple words - profuse menstrual bleeding. If you find abnormal heavy discharge in yourself, you should definitely contact a gynecologist, he will help to establish the cause. Large blood loss can lead to fatigue, overwork and even anemia. Menorrhagia - what it is and how to treat ailment, let's see in more detail.
Symptoms of the disease
Prolonged and heavy uterine bleeding (menorrhagia) recur at regular intervals. Symptoms of menorrhagia can serve the following indicators: in normal menstruation lasts from three to five days, while blood loss does not exceed two hundred milliliters. When menorrhagia, this period is delayed for a week or more, blood loss can reach five hundred milliliters.
Menstrual flow is not only blood, but a biological fluid that has a mixed composition. But, nevertheless, its great loss transforms the optimal cycle into a serious violation. Perhaps the development of iron deficiency anemia, which provokes sudden syncope and poses a threat to health. Due to heavy discharge during menstruation, the woman is forced to change the sanitary pad every hour.
Often, menorrhagia is accompanied by bruises on the body, bleeding from the gums and nose.
Menorrhagia should be considered a serious cause for concern, which signals many disorders, and even means the development of any pathologies in the reproductive system.
Causes of menorrhagia can be:
- Hormonal imbalance, when in different phases of the cycle violated the correct ratio of sex hormones.
- General hormonal disorders in the body (in the work of the thyroid gland, ovaries).
- Use of intrauterine device (contraceptive).
- Hormonal adolescent imbalance.
- Contraceptive use.
- Diseases of the kidneys, liver, cardiovascular system.
- Menorrhagia is accompanied by uterine myomas, fibromyoma, chronic endometritis, endometrial polyps, uterine cervix, uterine cavity, endometriosis, adenomyosis, and other diseases of the reproductive system.
- Blood clotting disorders, taking anticoagulants.
- Diseases - hemophilia, thrombocytopathy, vitamin K deficiency.
- Menorrhagia is characteristic of ectopic pregnancy.
- Sharp climate change (travel to hot lands).
- Psycho-emotional and physical stress, stress.
The diagnosis of "menorrhagia" is established by a doctor only after a full examination has passed. Diagnosis begins with an examination of the pelvic organs. At the same time special smears are taken from the vagina. If myoma is suspected, the patient is sent for an ultrasound.
Women gynecologists strongly recommend keeping a calendar of the cycle, note in it both the duration and the abundance of menstruation. The indicator is taken as the frequency of change of sanitary pads, changing more often than once per hour or every hour indicates excessive discharge.
Diagnosis takes place on the following indicators:
- Anamnesis of the patient's complaints (how long menstruation became abundant, what preceded it, what drugs were taken, etc.).
- Gynecological history and its analysis (illness, surgery, pregnancy, infection, etc.).
- Menstrual function and its analysis (first menstruation, cycle regularity, soreness, profusion, etc.).
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs.
- Gynecological examination.
- Determining the ratio and level of hormones, coagulogram (blood clotting study).
- Oncomarkers SA-125, SF-199.
- Smear microscopy.
- Studies on smear oncocytology.
- Biopsy of the cervix.
- Consultation of the endocrinologist-gynecologist.
Therapy depends directly on the cause of the disease. Also, treatment is determined by the duration and profusion of bleeding.
To regulate hormonal balance, hormonal contraceptives are prescribed, which normalize the ratio of progesterone and estrogen. Menstrual flow is reduced by about 40%.
For the prevention of anemia, iron preparations are prescribed. Blood loss helps reduce rutin, combined with ascorbic acid. Anti-inflammatory drugs are often prescribed, for example, Ibuprofen.To correct severe bleeding, it is necessary to apply hemostatic agents: chloride, calcium gluconate, "Ditsinon", aminocaproic acid.
Treatment of menorrhagia can also be carried out by physiotherapy (applications with ozokerite, diathermy).
In some cases, the treatment of menorrhagia necessitates surgical intervention (uterine cavity, cervical canal is scraped, endometrial polyps, myoma are removed).
Indications for surgical treatment are:
- Damage as well as physiological disorders of the genital organs.
- Recurrent menorrhagia.
- Iron-deficiency anemia.
- Drug therapy did not give the desired effect.
- Surgical treatment of menorrhagia causes mixed reviews. But in most cases this allows the patient to gain health and forget about this ailment.
Surgical procedures are divided into two types: hysterectomy and hysteroscopy.
Menorrhagia (what it is, we found out) is treated in such a surgical way as hysterectomy is the removal of the uterus, which is carried out through the vagina or a small incision in the abdominal cavity.This type of surgery is extremely rare for young women, only in exceptional cases, since it is impossible to get pregnant after hysterectomy.
This operation, according to patients, brings significant relief, sexual desire does not decrease, sex life remains at the same level, and even becomes brighter. The advantages of the operation include the fact that the patient's body recovers very quickly (within a few days), there are no significant surgical scars. From the practice of hysterectomy, it can be concluded that in most cases the cycle after surgery interrupts, the discharge is no longer disturbing, with time comes the menopause.
During hysteroscopy, the walls of the uterus are examined with the help of a special instrument, which is equipped with an optical system. The procedure allows for diagnosis and at the same time eliminate any violations. The procedure of hysteroscopy in the hospital or on an outpatient basis. The effectiveness of the operation is up to 85%. Before the intervention, the patient determines the Rh factor and blood type, takes a gynecological smear, as well as tests for hepatitis B and syphilis.
Complications and consequences
Menorrhagia leads to various disorders in the reproductive system, which is the need to know to any woman. Finding at least some symptoms of the disease, you should immediately contact a gynecologist. Late intervention and delayed elimination of the causes of menorrhagia can lead to:
- the development of anemia;
- the emergence and further development of malignant tumors of the reproductive system;
- significant deterioration in the quality of life, possible disability.
If a woman is regularly examined by a gynecologist (once every six months), then the problems identified in time and the correctly prescribed treatment will protect her from such a disease as menorrhagia.
Menorrhagia - what is it and is it possible to alleviate the symptoms of the disease by popular methods? In some cases, yes, you can resort to grandmothers' recipes to alleviate the condition, but it is necessary to treat the causes of the disease only under the supervision of a doctor.
Tincture of fezalis gives a positive effect. She prepares in advance. It is necessary to insist in half a liter of vodka dried fezalis roots (50 g). The drug is infused for two weeks, the contents need to be shaken periodically. You need to take 20-30 drops before meals three times a day.
Take the dry leaves of raspberry, chop, pour three tablespoons of boiling water (half a liter). Infused medication up to six hours in wrapped form. Four times a day, you need to drink a decoction in the form of heat for half a glass.
Make a collection, it will include: leaves of white amela, blackberries, grass shepherd's bag. You need to take 50 grams of collection, a liter of dry red wine, mix. After five hours, bring the mixture to a boil. Then you need to cool and then strain. The tool must be taken three times a day, 50 ml.
In any case, for menorrhagia, be sure to contact your gynecologist for help. The human body is a complex system, each individual. It may be that the funds that helped one can harm the other. Only a doctor with the help of correct diagnostic methods is able to accurately identify the cause of the disease and prescribe the correct treatment.
In the prevention of menorrhagia includes a number of the most simple rules, the observance of which gives a chance to avoid this insidious disease, this includes:
- Full and timely treatment of various infections, inflammations of the pelvic organs.
- Constantly keep a menstrual calendar that allows you to track the regularity of the cycle, the duration and the abundance of secretions.
- If possible, exclude from the life of psycho-emotional and intense physical exertion, overwork, as well as abrupt climate change.
- Give up bad habits.
- Maintain a healthy lifestyle (proper nutrition, exercise).
- Observe personal hygiene.
- Visit the gynecologist twice a year for a periodic examination.
Menorrhagia in adolescents
What is this menorrhagia in women is now clear, the question arises - at what age can the disease manifest itself? The practice of gynecologists shows that already in adolescence, menorrhagia can cause disruption of the normal course of life. Girls aged 13-16 complain of prolonged and heavy bleeding, cycle violations. At the reception, the doctor, first of all, pays attention to height, weight, the formation of sexual characteristics, excludes diseases that inhibit development. The general state of health (attendance at sports activities, work capacity, activity during menstruation) also indicates a certain predisposition to gynecological diseases.In a conversation with adolescents, the doctor must explain that nothing terrible happens in the body, and qualified treatment will help fix the situation in a short time.
Diagnosis in adolescents
In addition, the girl undergoes a primary examination by a gynecologist, during menorrhagia, she is sent for a blood test for hemoglobin. The doctor must find out if there are signs of iron deficiency anemia. If the value is too low, in some cases the gynecologist recommends hospitalization with a blood transfusion procedure. This safe measure is very effective in menorrhagia during adolescence. The doctor also recommends the girl to keep the menstrual calendar under the guidance of her mother or sister, to clearly mark the days, duration and abundance of discharge.
Treatment of menorrhagia in girls
The treatment of menorrhagia largely depends on the fact whether there is heavy bleeding for the first time or whether it is a regular occurrence. In the primary case, the girl is prescribed to take certain oral contraceptives several times a day during the week. A side effect can be nausea.Another option is alternative means that normalize the cycle and cause menstrual-like bleeding. Drugs should be taken 12 days a month for six months (six cycles).
With regular menorrhagia, special drugs are prescribed that affect the uterine mucosa, reduce the amount of secretions. Such funds are used only during menstruation.
The effect of treating menorrhagia during adolescence generally appears after six months, when the cycle is restored. The patient should be examined regularly by her gynecologist.