Long-Range Aviation of Russia: creation history, description and interesting facts
The air force of the Russian Federation consists of several units, each with its own functions and tasks. Operational tactical aviation, military transport aviation, army aviation and long-range aviation, in turn, consist of bomber, reconnaissance, fighter, assault, special and transport aviation.
The Russian Air Force includes territories with air bases that are directly subordinate to the commander-in-chief.
History of Russian long-range aviation
A little more than a hundred years ago, during the reign of Tsar Nicholas II, an air squadron was created, which consisted of the progenitors of modern aircraft, the Ilya Muromets airliners. Despite the fact that the first bombers took off in 1923, the military festival dedicated to long-range aviation was introduced only on December 23, 1999 by order of the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Air Force.
"Ilya Muromets" is the S-22 designed by Sikorsky. The first plane left the assembly line of the car factory. It was made of wood, had two wings and four motors, that is, was a biplane. The weight of the car was about five tons. For military operations, the aircraft was equipped with two platforms and machine guns in the space between the chassis and the top of the fuselage.
The first pilot was the aircraft Sikorsky. Six months later, the test flights began to produce aircraft for the army of the Russian Empire. Permission to sit at the helm could only get an officer. Moreover, the on-board mechanic should also have an officer rank.
Since 1914, all the "Muromtsy" were equipped with the newest engines with greater power, except for machine guns, bomb holders, a bomb sight and six crew seats. These were the first type B long-range bombers of Russia. The same machine set a record flight duration - 6 hours 30 minutes.
Russian aviation in the First World War
The squadron was formed from a large staff of pilots and ground support personnel. M. Shidlovsky became commander of long-range aviation of that time.Mechanical repair barns and warehouses were built, their own communications units, a meteorological service, a flight school (which was provided with special training aircraft), and special anti-aircraft artillery were created.
During the First World War, manned groups lost only one unit of the Muromets and carried out about four hundred reconnaissance missions.
In 1916, the S-22 was again upgraded to type E. Thus, the new aircraft weighed more than seven tons and was equipped with eight firing points - the shelling could be conducted from all sides of the aircraft.
1917 - the creation of the next modification of "Ilya Muromets" - J. However, after the February revolution, all plans to build 120 heavy bombers failed. The destruction of the squadron continued with the removal from office of Shydlouski, who was declared a monarchist.
When the troops of the Russian Empire began to retreat from Vinnitsa in the autumn of 1917, they decided to burn the “Murom people” so that the enemy would not capture them. The last combat flight of the S-22 performed in 1920, November 21, then the use of aircraft was limited in the field of passenger and mail traffic.
Design offices of Tupolev and Ilyushin
The 30s of the twentieth century entered the history of the country a major breakthrough in the development of aircraft. For the long-range aviation unit, the design of the radically new cars began in 1927. As a result, the well-known design engineer A. Tupolev created his offspring TB-1, TB-3 and TB-4, which were launched for further mass production. Bombers were heavyweights made from solid pieces of metal, the chassis was converted into a ski mechanism. The Soviet Union came out on top in the quality of twin-engined bombers.
Few people know, but the TB-4 (or ANT-20) bomber was also designed as a cargo-passenger aircraft. He was named "Maxim Gorky" and the first pilot was the famous long-range pilot M. Gromov. Being the world record holder in raising a fifteen-ton cargo to a height of five kilometers, the plane "lived" only about a year. The liner collapsed in front of the public after an emergency mid-air collision during a demonstration flight of 1935.
The next development for long-range aviation has become truly phenomenal. It was 1932, P. Sukhoi, guided by the teachings of A.Tupolev, developing low-gliding aircraft with a single engine. He was also all-metal. It was on it that one of the best pilots, Valery Chkalov, set a world record for flight range. The pilot flew from Moscow to the ANT-25 across the North Pole and reached the coast of the Pacific Ocean in California. The mileage of the track was 10,140.
In the same 30s, simultaneously with the development of A. Tupolev, the General Directorate of Aviation Industry gathered all the famous aircraft designers of the Union under the same roof of the Central Design Bureau. Head invited S.Ilyushin. Along with the design of the TB-4, in 1935 a completely new type of bomber was launched - the DB-3. After a year of successful tests, airplanes of this type began to enter the use of the Air Force.
1938 - the development of the IL-4. Ilyushin created what many other countries could not cope with — the first attack aircraft. The machine with improved power in the engines and improved combat kit participated in both the Finnish war and the Second World War. The total number of IL-4s produced is 1528 aircraft.
Aviation during the Second World War
Long-range aviation began to fulfill its strategic and operational-tactical objectives from the first day of the declaration of the Great Patriotic War, from June 22, 1941. The IL-4 became the main bomber.From the DB-3, Pe-2 and Pe-8 aircraft, the crews dropped bombs on the Germans' heads in the captured European cities, Warsaw, Bucharest, and Koenigsberg.
Not a single major operation by the Red Army was complete without long-range combat sorties. A year after the start of the war, 8 long-range aviation divisions were formed in the army. There were 340 bombers with 365 crews.
During the years of hostilities, almost 260 pilots received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
The post-war situation introduced an aircraft fleet of long-range aviation in a crisis - the machines became outdated and were decommissioned. Therefore, in 1947, with the help of the Tupolev Bureau, it was decided to create new powerful and heavy Tu-4s. It was a copy of the American B-29 bomber. The aircraft was adapted to the request of the Soviet leadership. In 1951, a new copy of the Tu-4 becomes the first carrier of nuclear weapons.
Horse racing in aircraft
The mid-50s raised the Soviet military aircraft to a new level. A Badger or Tu-16 was created - a brand new monoplane with a swept wing in the center of the hull. The first issue was produced in Kazan, in October 1953. 6 people were in charge of managing the Tu-16.Combat armament consisted of a tower remote installations, bow gun mount (PU-88) and 23-millimeter AM23.
Another brainchild of Tupolev - a four-engine turboprop strategic bomber-missile "Medved" (Tu-95). The total combat load was 12,000 kg. Until now, there are no analogues in the world to these engines - they are considered the most powerful.
56-60s - the creation of ZM. The main difference from other strategic bombers is the availability of a new weapon system - the D5 cruise missile. It was created to defeat highly protected marine and land targets. Its range is 270 km, and the speed is three times faster than sound.
The development of aviation in the cold war
The organizations of NATO and the Warsaw Pact (Warsaw Pact Organization) after the end of World War II were the main military-political blocs. According to historians, the confrontation between the USA and the USSR could turn from the Cold War into the Third World War, therefore long-range aviation was an excellent nuclear defense for the Union. Soon, the composition of long-range aviation replenished rocket troops, a rocket division was created.
The period of the Cold War gave impetus to the creation of the K-22 aviation missile system based on the Tu-22, which underwent three modifications.
The White Swan (Tu-160) became the symbol of opposition.His power was not only in supersonic speed, but also in the changing geometry of the wing. For the first time the plane took off in 1981 from the airfield in Ramenskoye. In the future, "Swan" went into mass production.
Overview of long-range aircraft in our days
Modern long-range aviation is the basis of the nuclear forces of the Russian Federation. The bases of long-range aviation units are distributed according to their strategic purpose and efficiency.
The aircraft fleet is represented by machines:
- Rocket carrier Tu-160 - 16 units.
- The missile carrier Tu-95MS - 32 units of active and 60 in stock.
- The Tu-22MZ missile bomber is about 12.
- Il-78 refueling aircraft - 19 units.
- Tu-22MR reconnaissance aircraft - 150 units.
The aircraft are armed with long-range cruise missiles, nuclear and conventional missiles with an operational-tactical mission, bombs of various calibers.
The military patrol controls the space of Iceland, the Norwegian Sea, the North Pole, the Aleutian Islands, and the east coast of South America.
Long-range aviation museum
Russian museums dedicated to long-range aviation are located in Ryazan and Engels. Ryazan Museum is the oldest, it was created in 1975 in honor of the thirtieth anniversary of victory in the Second World War. The museum is located in the garrison Dyagilev.Its exposition is represented by military aircraft (Tu-22M2, Tu-95K, Tu-16), various documents and photographs of officers and pilots. Museum address: Ryazan, st. Belyakov, in / h 41521, Museum of the long-range aviation.
In the Saratov region is the second Russian Museum of long-range aviation. Its visitors will be pleasantly surprised by the fact that it is located at the operating long-range aviation base. Here you can see real strategic bombers - the Tu-160. Moreover, the museum owns a whole collection of cruise missiles and aerial bombs. The address of the museum: Engels, 1, in \ h 42152.
And the largest museum of the Air Force is a museum in the village of Monino, Moscow region. It is recognized as the largest aviation museum in the world, the collection of planes will not leave indifferent any visitor. Plus, the Open Day is held several times a year in the museum, when a gangway is fitted to the most interesting exhibits and inspection of the inside of combat vehicles is allowed. The collection is rich in the very first aircraft, and the most modern. The address of the museum: Moscow region, Schelkovsky district, p.t.t. Monino, st. Museum, 1.
The future of long-range aviation
The commander of long-range aviation on September 16, 2016 was Major General S. I. Kobylas. For today, long-range aviation of the Russian Aerospace Forces expects the development of a promising aviation complex of long-range strategic bomber-missile carrier from OAO Tupolev. The first flight is about scheduled for 2019, and commissioning in 2025. From various sources comes information that the new machine will look like a "flying wing". The construction of ranged combat will reduce the possibility of detection by radar.