Increased alkaline phosphatase: what does it mean?
Alkaline phosphatase is a group of enzymes,which are part of all tissues of the human body. It is found in bone tissues, osteoblasts and bile ducts, but mostly in the intestinal mucosa. The production of alkaline phosphatase is carried out in the outer layer of the intestinal mucosa, but its participation in digestion processes is only secondary. Its main purpose is manifested in the separation of phosphoric acid from various compounds of organic origin.
Alkaline phosphatase in children, normal:
- at birth - 250 units / l;
- at the age of 5 days - 231 units / l;
- from 6-day-old age to 6-month-old - 449 units / l;
- from 6 months of age to a year - 462 units / l;
- from one year to three - 281 units / l;
- from 4 years of age to 6 years - 269 units / l;
- from 7 years of age to 12 years - 300 units / liter;
- 13-17 years for boys - 390 units / liter;
- 13-17 years for girls - 187 units / liter.
The causes of increased alkaline phosphatase
The testing of this indicator is essential fordiagnosis of liver disease, which are accompanied by a decrease in the supply of duodenal ulcer bile. In this case, the child often has alkaline phosphatase in his blood. The highest level can be with violations of the decrease in bile because of stones in the bile duct or in the presence of tumors in the bile duct. In addition, if alkaline phosphatase is increased, the following diagnoses can be made:
- bone diseases, as well as cancerous metastases in the bones, sarcoma, tumors;
- Bone lesions with lymphogranulomatosis;
- Skeletal disease (Paget's disease);
- intestinal infections;
- Pediatric cytomegaly;
- Infectious mononucleosis.
Increased alkaline phosphatase in children is of great importance in the early diagnosis of rickets. In such cases, a burst of enzyme activity occurs long before the onset of symptoms of the disease.
There are times when it may arisephysiological increase in the degree of this indicator in the blood serum. This can occur in premature infants, adolescents during the puberty period and at the time of intensive development of bone tissue.
Taking medications with a hepatotoxic by-productaction can also become one of the reasons why alkaline phosphatase is increased. This can occur due to the use of paracetamol, penicillins, sulfonamides, erythromycin, etc. Very often, the growth of this enzyme is affected by high metabolism in the bone tissues during the fusion of bone fractures.
How to reduce the degree of alkaline phosphatase?
Has no particular clinical significancedecrease in alkaline phosphatase. The lowered level of this enzyme can be caused by various disorders of bone growth, deficiency of vitamins C and B12, magnesium, zinc in nutrition, anemia and hypothyroidism, sometimes hereditary hypophosphatase.
Treatment of the disease
In order to normalize the index of the degree of alkaline phosphatase, therapy of the main disease is necessary, and not a simple adjustment of this level to the norm.
Children, unlike adults, are always betteralkaline phosphatase. Sometimes an increase in the activity of phosphatase is the only sign of a malignant liver disease. That is why it is important to carry out all the necessary clinical studies and timely treatment of the child.