How in the USSR fought with "thieves in law"
How in the USSR fought with "thieves in law""Thieves in law" appeared in the first decades of Soviet power. At first, their existence was justified, then the authorities began to deal with them and play off each other.
Since the reforms of Peter I, the underworld in the Russian Empire was becoming more and more influential, specialization appeared, and by the end of the 19th century the caste system of the gangster world was already formed. Fundamental changes in the system of the thieves' world were introduced by the revolution and the Civil War. Many of those who went before this "thieves' way" were among the "sympathizers" of Bolshevism.
By helping the "red", they could take revenge on the hated royal regime. Grigory Kotovsky emerged from the criminals, the commander of the Red Army was even the legendary thief Mishka Jap, who did not shy away from ties with the criminals and Koba, the future Joseph Stalin. After the end of the Civil War, many Red commanders who had a criminal record could not unlearn their previous habits.The new government, which strongly defended its legitimacy, no longer needed such elements. For this reason, they were simply eliminated, and “purges were conducted.
Then the world of thieves and realized that flirting with politics is much more dangerous than stealing. And the thieves decided to stay with their former interests. The Code of Thieves' Concepts began to take shape in the late 20s - early 30s. Several factors contributed to this. First, the fall in world grain prices led to the fact that the second export raw material was wood, which, unlike grain, should not just be harvested, but felled, and not felled in the most hothouse conditions (one of the reasons for the appearance of the GULAG). Secondly, collectivization, which stimulated the growth of crime.
These factors took shape, and the country was confronted with a phenomenon about which they like to say today with the saying "half the country was sitting, half the country was guarding." A huge number of people who were behind bars, long periods, “long stages” - all this contributed to the fact that the camp became a separate biosphere, the organization of the hostel in which required not only external but also internal management. So the elements of internal power and steel thieves.
It is significant that the system of the thieves' society itself was from the very beginning a direct copy of the system of organization of the party power. “Delegates” and “secretary” were elected by voting at meetings, for neophytes two recommendations from other thieves were needed. The most important thing was to maintain discipline, to follow the laws of the thieves: not to start a family, not to work, not to save up wealth (to donate everything to the obshchak), not to have an apartment (to live on a raspberry).
As Varlam Shalamov writes in “Essays of the criminal world”: “A thief steals, drinks, walks, depraves, plays cards, deceives fraers, does not work either at will or in prison, destroys renegades with bloody punishment and participates in the“ rules ” generating important issues of underground life. ”
Thieves have become a kind of "kings" of the whole camp of the country. Despite the fact that they were legally forbidden to cooperate with the administration, they controlled all the processes that took place in the zone. For the state system such an order of self-organization was even convenient.
We read at the same Shalamov: “With the thieves is considered the authorities. Blatari is the master of life and death in the camp.They are always full, they can “get it” when everyone else is hungry. The thief does not work, gets drunk, even in the camp, and the peasant guy is forced to "plow." Thieves make him “plow” - so they deftly adapted themselves ”.
Thieves and war
During the war, part of the thieves "reforged" and went to serve. Political prisoners were not taken to penal battalions and companies, but representatives of crime convicted of minor crimes could try to “redeem with blood” and sent to penal companies. However, it must be said that the thieves did not differ by great conscience and patriotism, many of them deserted and found livelihood through robbery, theft and speculation. In 1942, at the very height of the war, a massive raid on thieves was even carried out on the Tishinsky market in Moscow. The country, which reflected the fascist threat, was forced to fight with the internal enemy in the face of thieves. A big resonance was caused by the detention in 1952 of the gang Pavlenko. In 1941, Pavlenko deserted, with the help of his friends, "knocked out" a community that, under the guise of military construction, was engaged in looting, looting, shooting.The backbone of the organization consisted of criminals, whom Pavlenko dressed in military uniform and awarded them with fake award lists of titles and medals. Pavlenko made himself a "colonel", during his arrest he was found general shoulder straps.
Twigs of war
After the war, many of the thieves who fought at the front returned to the camps. The zone did not accept them, the thieves-old lawyers considered all those who collaborated with the state, traitors, "to mop up". What can I say, if, according to the law of thieves, even if he struck, at the request of the “superior”, he was considered to be “leaked” to the rail. The blatari who returned from the front were ready for the fact that they would not be accepted. In 1948, a “new law” was declared at the port of Vanino.
A real war began, bloody and long, knives and weapons were collected throughout Kolyma. Thieves world loves theatricality. To move to the new thieves' law, a rite was invented - kissing a knife. Kissed the knife lost all rights in the thieves' world and forever became a "bitch." They refused to kill the victims, but not simply, but before their death they also “trumped” - they were beaten and crushed with metal doors. In the course of the “bough wars” a third thieving community was also formed - “unlimited”. They treated with equal hatred both the old thieves and the "bitches."
Twigs of war substantially thinned the thieves' community, split it. Aggression was initiated both from the inside and the outside. Bleeding the thieves, the authorities quite successfully solved their problems.
The decisive initiative of the authorities to split and destroy legal thieves was the creation of a separate prison for blatari - the “White Swan”. It was built back in 1938, but until 1955, it contained not only criminals, but also "political" ones. In the 55th, the “political” were transferred to a colony located in Mordovia, and the “White Swan” became a real “jar of spiders”. Thieves, as we already know, are forbidden to work, but who will work in the colony, if there is no one other than thieves? Inside the colony there were constantly riots, uprisings that were brutally suppressed.
In 1980, the “White Swan” created the UPCT (a single chamber-type room), which earned ill glory among thieves of all stripes. EEPT sent repeat offenders from all over the country (about 4, 5 thousand), 130 thieves in law were “buried” here. It was a very effective measure to combat legalists. Anatoly Zhoglo, a police colonel, a veteran of the GUBOP of the Ministry of Internal Affairs gave the following comment to this method of correctionthieves: “In the practice of the Soviet camp system, thieves' wars were one of the most significant ways to eradicate this caste.
Sometimes such confrontations were provoked by the thieves themselves, sometimes special conditions were created for this at the initiative of the country's leadership. ”