Depending on what part of the fetus (legs,buttocks or head) in the womb adjoins the inner throat of the cervix, distinguish several varieties of diligence. It should be said that before the 34th week of pregnancy the position of the baby can change periodically, but after the onset of the seven to eight month period it becomes stable.
Presentation of the fetus is pelvic, headache,transverse or oblique. And the most common position of the child is the head, it occurs in 97% of cases of pregnancy, and is considered the most natural and convenient. Usually, with such a pose, the child's birth is relatively easy and does not cause complications.
Pelvic presentation of the fetus is noted in the case,if the baby is sitting on legs or on the buttocks. This kind of position is considered dangerous to the health of the crumbs. Taz baby during childbirth leaves quite quickly, but when removing the head through the birth canal inevitably there are difficulties. This is why the method of cesarean delivery is often used as a delivery. Usually for 2 weeks before childbirth the baby is fixed in a certain pose. From this moment it is possible to establish precisely the final presentation of the fetus and determine the mode of delivery. Often, women with such a diagnosis give birth themselves, but depending on the size of the baby, his sex, the size of the uterus and the age of the mother, the doctor can decide to carry out the operation.
There are several types of pelvic presentation:
- gluteal. It assumes that the buttocks are located at the entrance to the small pelvis. In this case the legs are bent in the hip joints and stretched along the entire trunk;
- foot. Means, that the legs, unbent in the knee and hip joints, are offered;
- The knee.
In addition to the pelvic and the head, there is alsotransverse presentation of the fetus. What it is? This position of the baby in the uterus, in which his pelvic end and head are in the lateral parts of the uterus, and at the exit from her is the shoulder. This position prevents the crumb from appearing on its own.
The transverse and pelvic presentation of the fetus may occur for the following reasons:
- if a woman carries a second or thirdchild. The thing is that during the first pregnancy the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall become flabby, stretched and weakly fixing the uterus. Restore their tone is not possible, so the probability of pelvic presentation significantly increases;
- if a woman has a watermark. Floating in a large volume of fluid, the baby is capable of great maneuvers, while often changing his position from the pelvic to the head, and vice versa;
- uterine fibroids or other anomalies;
- low location of the placenta (in the lower part of the uterus);
- malformations of the fetus;
- the narrow pelvis of the mother;
Often, women face such a problem,as a low presentation of the fetus, at which the placenta is located much lower than the prescribed level. This pathology can arise, based on the following reasons:
- inflammation of the uterus;
- operative intervention (caesarean section, scraping, removal of fibroids, etc.);
- complications during childbirth;
- underdevelopment of the uterus;
- multiple pregnancies;
- excessive physical activity
- recurring bleeding fromof the genital tract. This happens due to the fact that the placenta loses its ability to stretch after the uterus during pregnancy. As a result, it exfoliates, and bleeding arises from the vessels of the uterus. The fetus does not lose blood, however, now it is subject to oxygen starvation;
- low pressure;
- late toxicosis, which occurs against the background of violations of the functions of various organs and systems;
- delay in fetal development due to lack of oxygen.