Epos Ramayana - poetry of India
India is an amazing country with a rich and unusualculture, folk and religious traditions, carefully and continuously kept from an immense antiquity to our days thanks to highly developed oral creativity.
The identity of Indian civilization was born from the images and ideas of an ancient epic. Myths and legends are the basis of Hindu religion, art and literature.
Origins of the epic
The mythology of ancient India was not static - itconstantly changing with the change of epochs, absorbing new deities and other images, creating a picture, at first glance, chaotic, but absolutely integral, organic. All this extraordinary diversity exists in the same general framework and up to now.
India, as the highest wealth, keeps the monuments of thousand-year ancient Indian literature - works of Vedic literature - the holy writings of Hinduism, on the basis of which the epic later grew up.
"Veda" means "knowledge". The core of Vedic knowledge was, first of all, spiritual - religious doctrines. And material knowledge - about medicine, music, architecture, mechanics and the ability to wage war. All the Vedas are four.
In the Vedic age, the famous Indian epic "Mahabharata" and "Ramayana" was born. In both works of the epic, truth, Vedic knowledge, fiction and allegory are intertwined.
In the traditions of Indian culture, the Mahabharata is considered the fifth Veda and is revered as a sacred book.
Access to the four Vedas was only among the priests, andthe epos of the Mahabharata became the Vedas of the ksatriya warrior class, about the life and deeds of which he relates, and entered the common people as moral edification.
History and myths
The epic "Ramayana" and "Mahabharata" for a long timeremained an oral tradition. The poems were written at the very beginning of a new, Christian era, when they already acquired a grandiose amount: "Mahabharata" - 100 000 couplets (in Indian - shlok), collected in 18 books, and "Ramayana" - 24 000 shlok (7 books) .
Due to the lack of chronology in traditional Indian culture, it was difficult to establish exact dates for the creation of epics.
Indians were more interested in the impact of events and actions on a person. From the past, they tried to learn morals and lessons for their lives.
The epic "Mahabharata" is called "itihasa", which literally means "it was really so."
The Indian epic "Ramayana" and "Mahabharata"developing for many centuries, absorbed the improvisations of many storytellers and their present appearance is the result of countless and never-ending changes and additions.
As a result, the inserted texts occupy two-thirds of the volume of the entire poem "Mahabharata." To a much lesser extent, such additions and changes were experienced by the Ramayana.
The basis of the plot of the Mahabharata
"Mahabharata", translated into Russian, - "The great legend of the descendants of Bharata" or "The Legend of the Great Battle of Bharata."
The epic tells of the mutual hostility between the two lines of the royal family of the Kurus - the Kauravas and the Pandavas, the nobility of the heroes in various trials, and the final victory of the Pandavas, adherents of justice.
The heroic, military epic "Ramayana" is glorified no less. His main character Rama is one of the incarnations on earth of the god Vishnu. In short, the Ramayana story is present in the Mahabharata.
Summary of the Ramayana
The word "Ramayana" is translated from the Indian "Acts of Rama". "Rama" means "Handsome" or "Beautiful". Rama had a skin of blue color.
The epic "Ramayana" has a more harmonious composition and is better edited, the plot develops very harmoniously and consistently.
"Ramayana" is an epic literary, in Indian"Kavya". It is filled with colorful metaphors, intricate turns of speech and eloquent descriptions. This poem is a subtle sensitivity, the pathos of love and faithfulness.
The plot is based on the life story and exploits of Prince Rama.
In those ancient times, the ruler of the island of LankaThere was a demon of Rahshasas Ravana ten-headed. From the god of Brahma, he received invulnerability as a gift. Using this, Ravana raged, insulting the heavenly gods. Lord Vishnu decided to deal with the demon. In view of the fact that only a man could kill a demon, Vishnu chose Rama for this prince and was reborn in his image.
The poem describes the childhood of Rama, his growing up andmarrying the beautiful Sita. Because of the insidiousness of his younger wife, Rama and his wife lived in exile for 14 years. The ruler of the evil demons Ravana abducted Sita, and the prince, with the help of his faithful brother Lakshman, united with monkeys and bears, attacked Lanka, defeated Ravana and not only freed his wife, but also rescued people from evil demons.
Importance of the epic
The epic "Ramayana" is very popular in India. Rama is the universal favorite of India. The names of the characters became common names, and the heroes serve as examples of loyalty, nobility and courage.
The ancient Indian epic had a great influence on theculture of all Asian countries. Poems have repeatedly been translated into different languages, including Russian. The works of "Mahabharata" and "Ramayana" were admired by prominent figures of world culture.
Having a huge historical and literarythe poems "Ramayana" and "Mahabharata" became the national heritage of the Indian people, who in the difficult periods of their history drew moral strength and support in them.