Economic Front: How Lend-Lease Supplies Helped the Red Army

12-06-2017, 10:07
On June 11, 1942, an "Agreement between the governments of the USSR and the USA on principles applicable to mutual assistance in waging a war against aggression" was signed in Washington.
Economic Front: How Lend-Lease Supplies Helped the Red Army
This document finally formed the concept of economic and military-technical cooperation between the two countries and laid the foundation for the massive supply to the Soviet Union of the lend-lease of American military equipment, food, ammunition, medical supplies and oil products. During the war years, sea convoys and transport aviation delivered cargo to our country for 11.3 billion dollars - more than 260 billion at the current rate. Despite the fact that the main contribution to the Victory was made by the Soviet industry, the help of the allies in the anti-Hitler coalition played a significant role in the success of the Red Army on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War.
Stew and cartridges.
Economic Front: How Lend-Lease Supplies Helped the Red Army
As Anastas Mikoyan wrote, the former Commissar of Foreign Trade of the USSR since 1938, without Lend-Lease, the Soviet Union would have fought for a year and a half longer. According to estimates of the famous Soviet economist Nikolai Voznesensky, the share of American supplies relative to domestic production during the war years was about 4-10 percent. Nevertheless, Lend-Lease fully covered the needs of the Red Army in a number of positions. In particular, the United States delivered more than 350,000 trucks to the USSR, so that there was no shortage of vehicles of this type in the troops until the very end of the war.
In addition, the Americans transferred to the Soviet Union 11.5 thousand aircraft, 12 thousand units of armored vehicles, 1977 locomotives, 35 thousand motorcycles, 105 anti-submarine ships and the same number of submarines, 346 thousand tons of explosives, 127 thousand tons of gunpowder and much more. Especially important role was played by food supplies (almost 4.5 million tons). In 1943-1945, the agriculture of the USSR, ravaged by the war, was physically unable to feed the multimillion army. Therefore, by mid-1944, all sorts of products, including 665 thousand tons of the famous stew, which the Red Army men called the “second front,” made up about a quarter of all lend-lease supplies.
Economic Front: How Lend-Lease Supplies Helped the Red Army
We must not forget about medical products.Almost all the antibiotics streptocid and penicillin, which were used in the hospitals of the Red Army, were lend-leased. This helped significantly reduce the mortality of Soviet soldiers from wounds and infections. Aviation of the USSR was seriously helped by gasoline deliveries - more than 2 million tons, or almost two thirds of the fuel, which was filled by Soviet aircraft. In addition, the Allies transferred hundreds of thousands of tons of aviation parts, radio stations, navigation equipment, and so on.
Not a charity.
Economic Front: How Lend-Lease Supplies Helped the Red Army
The cumulative deliveries of our allies exceeded the average annual pre-war imports of the USSR by more than 50 times. From January 1942 to May 1945, the United States sent 22 million tons of cargo to Europe for the needs of the American army, which is only 20 percent more than the total supply for the USSR (17.5 million tons). It is worth noting that the Lend-Lease program was beneficial for the Americans themselves, as it allowed in the shortest possible time to mobilize US industry to create their own army.
Deliveries from the USA to the USSR are usually divided into five stages: pre-lend-lease (from June 22, 1941 to September 30, 1941), the first protocol (from October 1, 1941 to June 30, 1942), the second protocol (from July 1, 1942 to June 30, 1943), the third protocol (from July 1, 1943 to June 30, 1944) and the fourth protocol (from July 1, 1944).Formally, it ended on May 12, 1945, but the dispatch of military cargo continued until the victory over Japan. We must understand that the Lend-Lease was not a charity or humanitarian aid. Thus, a significant part of military equipment and weapons of the USSR at the end of the war returned. In American museums, for example, there are several Bell P-39 "Aircobra" fighters with red stars on the fuselage. For the equipment destroyed in battles, the Americans did not demand compensation.
The economic front: how supplies under the Lend-Lease helped the Red Army of the USSR, Islands, history, us
In addition, during the war years, a program of the so-called reverse lend-lease was carried out, under which the USSR supplied quite a lot of strategic raw materials to the USA, in particular, 32 thousand tons of manganese and 300 thousand tons of chrome ore used in the production of armor. The total value of goods shipped from the Soviet Union to the United States amounted to about 20 percent of Lend-Lease shipments to the USSR.
Our country continued to pay the remaining amount until 1973, after which payments were frozen due to the introduction of a number of discriminatory measures by the American side in trade with the Warsaw Pact countries.Only in 1990, George Bush Sr. and Mikhail Gorbachev agreed to finally deal with the debts until 2030, but the collapse of the Soviet Union once again halted this process. The debt was divided between the governments of the Paris Club states and private banks. And all debts to the Paris Club, Russia paid by 2006.
Economic Front: How Lend-Lease Supplies Helped the Red Army
A number of historians tend to exaggerate the importance of assistance that the United States provided to the USSR during the years of the Second World War. Of course, it was very significant, but it did not play a decisive role, as, in fact, the opening of a second front in Europe in the summer of 1944.
“In the coalition war, only one full-fledged assistance exists — active large-scale actions,” wrote Russian historian Boris Yulin. - And this is not the allies helped us, and we - the allies. We bore the brunt of the main hostilities for them, died for them. Even if not 4-10% were supplies, but 100%, and even if not for money, but completely free, it would still not change the main thing - we helped the allies. And it would be better if the weapons that they sent us, instead, fought in Europe in the hands of American and British soldiers.

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