Commands for the Windows command line. List of main commands used for command line
Today, many use Windows to communicate with a computer in a language that it understands. However, programs are still launched using the usual command line (console). It is the ancestor of the interface and the means of communication between the user and the PC. The essence of the work lies in the fact that commands are entered into a string using the keyboard. This management method is often used by system administrators. Regular users should also know the basic commands.
Console - what is it?
Windows programs are launched using the console - command line. This is a type of text-based interface that has become available to many MS DOS users. Commands are entered into the command line manually. Many consider the console an obsolete way of management, the need for which often arises among users and system specialists.The command line is a black window with a green location label and a blinking cursor. The corresponding command for the computer is entered at the specified location.
The command line is an incredibly convenient window for solving many problems. However, to interact with the console will require the knowledge of writing commands. Plus the fact that they reduce the time to perform complex actions. To do this, simply enter the desired task in the string.
Why do we need teams?
Commands for the command line are needed to establish user contact with the operating system and computer. Working with the command line is an urgent need for professionals who are engaged in system administration. The console is a small part of what can be used as a tool for working with Windows. The command line is convenient, fast, with its help it is easy to solve many issues. To work with it will require the knowledge of teams and skills that will lead to a positive result.
CMD - a huge set of commands. Remember the main ones will help practice. With the help of commands you can change, edit files, create, restore partitions, configure, start, restart a computer, delete folders,copy and more. Experts advise to make a list of important commands in a notebook in alphabetical order. It is convenient and helps to quickly navigate.
How to start?
Commands for the Windows command line run without any difficulty. Despite the graphical interface, the console has always been and is the main control element of the computer. Basics of working with the console will be useful to the average user. To run the command line, open the menu: “Start” - “Run”. Enter the word "Cmd" in the pop-up window, press "Enter". If the version of the operating system does not have the “Run” item, then the “Win + R” combination.
In Windows 7, right-click on the "Start", go to "Properties" - "Customize", put a tick next to "Run." If you need to open the console as an administrator, enter the command “Cmd” in the search box “Start”, right-click on the program “Cmd”, select “Run as administrator”. On the desktop, it is convenient to create a shortcut that will open the console. The appearance of the row window can be changed by the user (color, font, location).
Sometimes there may be problems with copying and pasting text into the command line.In the case of the console, the clipboard buttons do not work. If you want to make a copy, right-click on the window, select "Mark", select the text with the left mouse button, and then right-click. To insert text or text, right-click in the Paste command window. In addition, you can work with the console with hot keys on the keyboard, up / down arrows.
The main command line commands help the user to solve tasks of paramount importance in a short time.
- “DIR” is a command that lists files and folders in the directory, data about the extension, size, free space on the hard disk. It can be changed using advanced options. An example of the change "DIR / W".
- “CD” - the command is needed to change the directory. With its help it is easy to move to different directories.
- “MD” - creates a folder or directory.
- “CLS” - clears the console window from previously written commands.
- “EDIT” - changes the content of the file.
- "DEL" - deletes files.
- "RD" - deletes empty folders, as well as filled with information without the possibility of renewal. Be careful with all commands that permanently destroy data folders.
- "REN" renames the file.The command looks like this: "RENAME current-name is new-name."
- “MOVE” moves files from directories.
- The "Attrib" command edits the attributes of a file or folder.
- “COPY” copies the location of the files and combines them. Commands look like this: "COPY filename or folder". With the help of "COPY.doc Word" you can copy files with the extension .doc to the appropriate folder.
- "CMD" copies files and directories from disks.
- "APR" edits records of the protocol of the same name, if necessary.
The list of commands, which is auxiliary, is often used by system specialists to work with information placed on the hard disk.
- The “Format” command deletes data from the hard drive, prepares it for copying. As an example of the format command: “FORMAT disk: / FS: FAT (file system)”.
- The “FC” command compares files with each other.
- “IPCONFIG” - shows full information about the Network settings, and also reports on the type of network connection “IPCONFIG / ALL”.
- The PING team will check the availability of the site. Example: “PING fb.ru”. The presence of numbers in the response indicates that everything is in order, the site is accessible to the public.
The command line commands for the Web allow you to work efficiently on the Internet, correct errors and tune parameters.If you need to know your IP address, enter the command “Ipconfig” in the console. In different variations of the Internet connection, you can find out complete information about the Network. After entering the user will receive a list of network connections that are used by the computer. If the user's computer is connected to the Internet via wireless Wi-Fi, the main gateway will be selected to communicate with the router. The user can enter his settings through the command entered into the console. If the computer is connected to a local network, you can find out about the IP address via the command line with the corresponding request.
With the help of the Ping and Tracert commands, the user will quickly find and fix problems in the Internet and browser. The "Netstat-an" command displays network connections and ports. This is a very useful program, because it displays various network statistics. The "-an" key opens a list of available network connections, ports, and IP addresses. The "Telnet" command connects to the servers of the same name. If you need information about network settings, use the “Ipconfig” command. Without additional parameters, the command displays information about the IP address. If you need specific information, add the command "All".Entered in the “Ipconfig / flushdns” line - clears the cache in Windows.
Filters are command line commands that are used with the channel redirection symbol. They are needed to sort, view and select information from other teams. Filters organize, divide, select some of the information that passes through them. Among these commands are the following:
- “More” - displays the contents of the file;
- “Find” - searches for the specified characters;
- “Sort” - sorts the files alphabetically.
In order to send data from a file, the symbol “L” is used, to direct the output channel “I”.
In addition to the built-in CMD, the console is used to run regular programs. In order to enter it, just type the desired combination of letters in the "Run" window. If you want to view the results, it is better to use a string. “SHUTDOWN” is a command that shuts down Windows if for some reason the Start button does not work. It is useful in the case of a computer task that can not be interrupted (and the user needs to leave and not leave the computer turned on for a long time). The device will turn off correctly upon completion of the work independently. This is better than setting a timer.
Type the following command "Shutdown-s-t-1300", press "Enter". Numbers is the time in seconds after which the device will turn off. The command to restart the computer from the command line looks like this: “Shutdown-r”. Click "Confirm" to activate. The “At” command starts the PC at the time specified by the user. This utility reads and groups jobs in the Windows operating system.
The list of commands for the console is huge. Many of them are harmless and simple, but among them there are special ones that require caution on the part of the user. Be attentive! Sometimes it is necessary to completely format the disk or flash drive. The command to delete all data looks like this: “Format С”, auxiliary parameters “/ fs” - determine the location of the formatting disk file system, “/ v” - sets the volume label, “/ a” - cluster size. Do not execute the format command if you are not sure of your actions and do not know why this is necessary. The command deletes all information from the PC!
Some commands for the command line are designed to check disks for system errors. The command "CHKDSK" without additional parameters displays information about the status of the hard disk.If errors are found, enter an additional "/ f", which will allow to correct them. Before checking the disc, block it. If the console is filled with commands, enter “c / s” in the line to clear the screen.
System files are checked by the “Sfc” command. With it, you can recover damaged files. The command is supplemented with the parameters “/ scannow”, “/ scanonce”, “/ scanboot”, which check and fix system errors in files.
It is impossible to know all the command lines, but some of them are useful to the user. For example, the Assoc command changes the relationship between the extension and the file type. If the user wants to know detailed information about the operating system and the state of the computer, he should type “Systeminfo”. Using the Regent registry editor, you can change the hidden settings of the OS. However, if you do not know what's what, it is not recommended to do this because of the risk of breaking Windows. Calling the system configuration - a special service is easy by typing "Msconfic" on the command line. If you want to learn more about commands, write "Help" in the console line, taking into account that the seventh-eighth version of Windows acts as an operating system.
For useful user commands, experts include network, system, and filters.The "At" command consists of a whole set of commands that are used to install, reinstall, configure the modem. She is also considered a planning team. With it, you can change, cancel, customize tasks for a remote or local computer. In the Windows operating system, it is better to use the SCHTASKS utility instead of the "At" command. Its capabilities are much broader.