Calcium antagonists, vitamin K and aldosterone: use in medicine
Hypertension is one of the common diseases of the cardiovascular system. This pathology can develop against the background of various disorders of the kidneys, organs of congenital and acquired defects. In addition, hypertension may have unknown causes, in this case, the disease is called essential. Regardless of the etiological factor of this pathology leads to the same consequences. Hypertension predisposes to such terrible diseases as heart attack, angina, stroke, chronic heart and kidney failure. There are many groups of medicines that reduce pressure, one of which is calcium antagonists.
The value of calcium in the body
Calcium is an element that is necessary for the vital functions of the body.A large amount of it is in the bone and muscle tissue. Without calcium, the movement of our body would be impossible. This is explained by the fact that it is a skeleton in the bones, and also participates in the regulation of muscle contractions. In the tissues of the body there are special channels that control the entry and release of calcium into the cells. They exist in all vessels, heart, smooth and striated muscles. In hypertension, the vessels are very tense, that is, they are in good shape. To weaken this effect, it is necessary to reduce the ingress of calcium into muscle cells, for this purpose drugs are used that have the opposite effect. Calcium antagonists allow you to temporarily stop its flow through the channels.
Varieties of calcium antagonists
This group of drugs has 2 main types: dihydropyridines and non-dihydropyridines. The first have the ability to relax peripheral vessels. The latter are more suitable for heart diseases, as they reduce the conductivity of impulses emanating from the atria to the ventricles, in addition, they have an inotropic effect on the myocardium.In addition to the chemical structure, calcium antagonists have several generations. They differ in the duration of action and the ability to cause side effects. The first generation drugs include drugs that need to be used 3-4 times a day, among them emit tablets "Verapamil", "Nifedipine", "Diltiazem". Their trade names are drugs "Verapin", "Dilgart", "Amace-BR". These medicines are used in medicine for a long time, have high efficiency, have a relaxing effect on all the vessels of the body. The second generation drugs include medicinal substances “Gallopamil”, “Anipamil”, the difference of which is the ability to vazoselektivnosti, that is, selective action. This group also includes nifedipine derivatives that have a longer duration of action. Preparations of the third generation are used recently, they differ in molecular structure, belong to the species of dihydropyridines, and the representatives - the medicines “Amlodipine”, “Naftopidil”, “Lercanidipine”.
Indications for use
Given the mechanism of action of calcium channel blockers, you can put forward a range of diseases that are indications for their use.Preparations are used in cardiology as one of the main groups in the treatment of arterial hypertension. In addition, due to its effect on the heart muscle, these medicines are indicated for coronary disease, in particular for the treatment of angina pectoris. Nedigidropiridiny able to block the holding of cardiac impulse, so they also belong to the group of antiarrhythmic drugs. Arterial hypertension leads to slowly progressive, but inevitable chronic heart failure, in which myocardial hypertrophy occurs. In this case, calcium channel blockers are used to slow down or stop the development of pathology.
Side effects of drugs
Despite their advantages, calcium antagonists can have an adverse effect on the body. This happens when they overdose. Most often, the first generation of drugs are retained in the body, as they are permanently associated with blood proteins and are toxic to the liver. Signs of drug poisoning include excessive blood pressure reduction, bradycardia, inhibition of cerebral and peripheral circulation, drowsiness.With a significant overdose, such terrible consequences as coma, pulmonary edema, and myocardial infarction are severe. In this regard, it is recommended to take drugs of the second generation, as well as not to abuse calcium antagonists.
Vitamin K Antagonists
With increased blood viscosity, drugs are used to dilute it. This group is called anticoagulants. Since vitamin K is involved in the process of coagulation, antagonists use it. Indications for their use are: the tendency to thrombosis, the state after prosthetic heart valves, prevention of recurrent heart attacks. The representatives of this group include the drug "warfarin".
Aldosterone is a hormone that is synthesized in the adrenal cortex. It is responsible for the body's water and electrolyte balance by regulating the levels of potassium and sodium ions. If the hormone concentration rises, an increase in fluid volume occurs, leading to the appearance of arterial hypertension. Aldosterone receptor antagonists are used to treat this syndrome.Such drugs belong to the group of diuretics, that is, diuretics. An example is the drug "Spironolactone", as well as its analogues "Veroshpiron" and "Aldacton".