Basic methods of pedagogy
Beginning in the 19th century, experimental studies began to be conducted in pedagogy that contributed to the rapid development of the theory of education and training. Currently, research is being implemented by a whole system of different methods.
Pedagogy is a science that deals with the upbringing and education of children. Its main goal is to form a comprehensively developed and harmonious personality.This requires all the existing knowledge about the education of a person to be preserved and systematized. The main methods of pedagogy include the following:
- Observation. This method is available and widely distributed. It will be effective if the observation of the object is long, carried out systematically, is considered comprehensively and objectively. It is used at the initial stage of the study of personality and is used as an addition to other studies.
- Conversation. With the help of dialogues, conversations, discussions reveal the attitude of people to various events. The conversation provides an opportunity to identify their intentions, positions and assessments of the situation.These methods help to find out what the other person lives with, explain the reasons for his actions. Conversations are a complex method of pedagogy, it is far from always possible to achieve the expected result.
- Acquaintance with school documentation.The study of the personal file, diary, class book, notebooks and drawings from students helps to identify the stimulating role of assessments of knowledge in various subjects, attitudes towards the educational process.
- Pedagogical experiments.This is a pedagogy method that is used to test theoretical assumptions. During the experiment, these data are confirmed or refuted. Based on the results, proper conclusions and generalizations are made.
- Learning advanced pedagogical experience.Summarizes and analyzes the practical experience of the best educational institutions or specific teachers who have experienced important methodological results that were not previously known.
- Math statistics.This is a branch of mathematics that determines what methods of pedagogy the material was collected, how it was systematized and processed while observing various phenomena.
- Pedagogical consultation.The method allows during the procedure to analyze the facts and phenomena that interest the participants in the consultation. As a result, they find effective measures to overcome the current situation.
- Sociological research methods in pedagogy (questionnaires, tests, ratings, method of integrated assessments).Tests control the level of knowledge and intelligence. Sometimes the subject needs to express their opinion about a particular situation. Evaluation scales are used for self-assessment of the subject in some parameters of his achievements and actions. Rating evaluates some phenomenon on a predetermined scale.
Classification of methods in pedagogy
All methods in pedagogy are divided into the following:
- empirical and theoretical;
- qualitative and quantitative;
- stating the fact and transforming it;
- private and general;
- having content and formally put forward;
- collection of experimental data (their verification, confirmation or refutation of hypotheses);
- forecasting, description, explanation;
- applied in some sciences of pedagogy;
- used to process the results of the study.
General scientific methods
In their structure include the following:
- theoretical(comparison and opposition, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction);
- socio-psychological(training, testing);
- sociological(polls, rating, questioning);
- math(indexing, scaling).
Specifically-scientific, namely specifically pedagogical methods, consist of theoretical and empirical.
Theoretical methodsthey are intended for reviewing and summarizing material from printed sources (analysis of various archive documents, making forecasts, modeling possible situations).
Empiricalallow you to gather facts during the pedagogical process, including training and education. These include school documentation, interviews, observation, pedagogical experiment.
Mathematical methodsstudies in pedagogy are used for final data processing, which were obtained during the experiment and survey, in order to reveal the quantitative relationship between the quantities of interest. In pedagogy, the following mathematical methods are most often used:
- check in. All quantitative data that were obtained during the experiment are recorded.
- Ranging. All collected data are arranged in a specific order. For example, by increasing the level of knowledge of all students in a class on a particular subject.
- Scaling. This is an assessment by a digital indicator of some activity or phenomenon in the pedagogical process.
Statistical methodsused to calculate the average values of those indicators that were investigated. All methods — theoretical, empirical, mathematical, and statistical — are used in combination.
Pedagogical method of Maria Montessori
The method of scientific pedagogy of the Italian doctor and teacher consists of three parts:
- the child himself;
The main goal of the method is to bring joy to the child. There is no compulsion in choosing a task; he does it on his own. Independence and self-confidence appear in a child with the development of his skills. Montessori relies on inherent in each person the interest in the knowledge of the new. And the role of the teacher is reduced to unobtrusively directing him to study the new, overcoming difficulties. According to her method, a child can work independently and in a team with other children.He makes the choice himself. The child is given the opportunity to individually choose the task and perform it as he wants. There is no competition atmosphere in the class Everyone can care for plants and animals. Children are free from obsessive instructions from their elders, and the class for them becomes a tempting place where they can quietly study while exploring the world that surrounds them.
Training room equipment according to the method of M. Montessori
The classroom, according to the method of the Italian teacher, may consist of several zones:
- Everyday life. HHere children learn to care for themselves, to dress, to wash their hands, to wipe the table.
- Sensory.This zone teaches the child to assess the size of the object, its weight, determine the color, shape, smell, sound.
- Language, mathematics, physical education.Places where the intellectual development of children. Physical education helps children to know the possibilities of their bodies.
Many other zones can be made where a child can practice music, dancing, sewing, woodworking, learning foreign languages. In the same classroom there are children of different ages (from 2 to 6 years old), and the younger ones learn from the older ones.The teacher in such a school should be a very attentive leader, it is good to know each child and be able to direct him along the right path, to find a way out of any created situation.
Means, methods and forms of education
In the theory of education there are the following concepts:
- Means of education.These are activities that develop the personality (game, communication, sports).
- Methods of moral education. The impact on the individual, forming feelings, concepts, habits, the relevant norms of society
- Forms of the organization of educational work.There are two forms: mass (competitions and holidays) and group (electives and clubs). It should be noted that the forms and methods of pedagogy are very close in content.
Methods and techniques for teaching preschoolers
In order to choose the method of conducting the lesson, it is necessary to know its content and purpose, which you must achieve in the end. In preschool pedagogy, teaching methods are classified according to the main forms of thinking that determine the nature of children's activities during their studies. The main methods of preschool pedagogy are:
- Practical. Application of acquired skills to practical actions;
- Visual. The perception of the child is directed to the selection in the subjects of the main features.
- Verbal. They transmit information to children, set a task and indicate ways to solve it.
- Play. Gaming activities are associated with explanations, directions and displays. It helps in the process of the game to acquire new skills and abilities.
The relationship of the teacher with the student
To implement the goals of education, methods of influence of the teacher and the pupil on the consciousness of the latter are used, stimulating his activity and self-education. The main characteristic of the methods of pedagogy of education is the influence exerted on the ward, leading to a change in his consciousness or behavior.It takes a long time to form a child’s consciousness and the teacher will need both direct and indirect effects on the person. The effectiveness of the methods depends on the cooperation of the teacher with the pupil, so that the child does not oppose the measures of education. In this case, the teacher should always take into account the psychology of the child.
Methods of education
Apply the following:
- Conviction. One of the main methods of education.With it, they shape the worldview, civil and political qualities. Its main goal is to achieve a change in the object's views, assessments and opinions, so that it accepts the point of view of the persuasive.
- An exercise. So organize daily life in order to gain experience of correct behavior. With the help of exercises, it is necessary to involve children in social activities that help them develop the skills, habits, diligence of study and social work, and behavior in a team.
- Example. To influence the behavior and consciousness of the ward with positive examples that are exemplary. An attractive ideal of a child develops into self-action. Children often identify with popular personalities and want to be like them.
- Encouragement. To encourage the educated to take initiative, positive and creative activity, using encouragement. Public recognition of success, rewarding contribute to improving the efficiency of work of the student and his self-affirmation in the team.
- Compulsion. Measures that encourage fulfillment of duties, despite the reluctance to do so.Before forcing, the student should be convinced of the need to perform a particular task.
- Punishment. A way to conflict to stop the immoral activity of the individual. The method of punishment can be a conviction, an expression of discontent or mistrust. Punishment helps to restore order, and in children develops self-control and at the right moment - self-restraint. It can not be abused, it leads to the suppression of personality and self-doubt.
Methods and means of education
In pedagogy, there is no single interpretation of the terms “method” and “means” of education. In philosophy, the method is a way to achieve the goal. The method of education is an interrelated activity of the educator and the ward, focused on achieving the goal.Reception education is part of the method that is included in its structure. Means of education are different types of activity (play, work), things, aids, objects, works. The concept of "method" is a generalized in relation to the reception and means. For example, the method - dispute, means - visual materials, reception - musical accompaniment.Means and methods of pedagogy are inextricably linked with each other and one cannot be applied without the other.
Instead of conclusion
Modern pedagogy for practical and theoretical study of problems related to training and education, uses an extensive system of techniques, methods, approaches and principles.In pedagogy, methods are the definition of the interaction between the educator and the educator. The introduction of new research methods and the improvement of existing methods allows the development of pedagogy as a science.