Atmospheric pollution - causes and effects
What is the atmosphere
If you look at the academic definition, then the atmosphere is the gaseous envelope of the planet. It has a layered structure and complex chemical composition. The air around us is a mixture of various gases, which include oxygen. This mixture was formed as a result of evolutionary changes. In the process of the formation of the modern natural environment, atmospheric pollution has occurred many times and at various scales. Facts of this kind are confirmed by the research of geologists and archaeologists. Sources of pollution were active volcanoes, forest and steppe fires.
Modern sources of pollution
As practice shows, air pollution occurs for various reasons and from different sources. First of all, it should be noted that the above-mentioned natural sources continue their active activities and make a significant contribution to the overall negative trend.During a volcanic eruption, huge masses of hot gases and dust are released into the upper layers of the atmosphere and spread over the surface of the planet. In the last century, emissions of boiler houses and thermal power plants began to be added to this mass. To this list you need to add the exhaust gases of cars and aircraft.
Main types of pollution
At first glance it may seem that not always air pollution is a danger to the inhabitants of the earth's surface. Volcanic ash, dust and solid particles of soil will sooner or later be on the surface of the earth. This is true, but before it comes to the bottom, the hot gases and particles enter into a chemical reaction with atmospheric gases - first of all, with oxygen. Compounds of carbon and sulfur form aggressive substances that negatively affect all living things. Acid rain destroys the fertile soil layer. The quality of groundwater and flowing water varies. And, ultimately, all this adversely affects human health.
Industrial production and atmosphere
If in distant, prehistoric times, volcanoes and fires were the main sources of air pollution, in the last 200 years, man-made ones have been added to them.The rapid development of industrial production has significantly changed not only the earthly landscape, but also the qualitative composition of the atmosphere. Thus, in the production and processing of one ton of pig iron, 2.7 kg of sulfur dioxide and 4.5 kg of red-hot dust are released into the environment, in which arsenic, phosphorus, mercury and other elements are present. Knowing the statistics on the volume of metal production, one can calculate the rate at which air pollution is occurring as a result of the activities of metallurgical enterprises.
Problems of control and limitations
One can easily guess what the consequences of atmospheric pollution are for the inhabitants of our planet. They are well known to specialists. In order to prevent negative changes, various measures are taken and appropriate measures are taken. The Kyoto agreement on limiting emissions of harmful substances had the greatest effect. It was signed by almost all industrialized countries. But it is important not only to assume obligations, but also to systematically monitor their implementation. To date, the process of improving the atmosphere is far from complete, and many tasks remain to be solved.