Ammonium Sulphate: formula, composition, preparation and use
For top dressing of agricultural plants, they are mainly used in various forms, one of which is ammonium sulphate. In it, this macro is in an easily accessible form for plants. In addition, the fertilizer contains sulfur, which promotes better absorption of various other elements.
In addition to being used as a fertilizer, ammonium sulfate is involved in the production of viscose fiber. When re-precipitating, they purify proteins. It is also used as a food additive E517. It is used to increase the activity of yeast, increase the volume of bakery products and improve the structure of the dough.
It is used in water chlorination with ammoniation by introducing into it a few seconds before chlorine in order to bind the latter, which is free, which reduces its consumption, metal corrosion and a negative effect on human health.Also used to produce manganese in the electrolysis process. In the fire business is used as a flame retardant. In addition, it is used in the manufacture of building insulation materials, leather dressing and fishing.
Ammonium sulphate is odorless, it dissolves well not only in water, but also in acids, and it is not soluble in acetone, ether and alcohol. Acid salts can be obtained when it is heated to 250 degrees, at which there is a loss of ammonia. At higher temperatures, the product decomposes into water, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide and ammonia.
According to some data, the substance is capable of reducing the concentration of radionuclides in plants, which allows it to be grown in areas contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.
The main methods of obtaining
- waste processing after the manufacture of caprolactam;
- treatment of gypsum with ammonium carbonate solutions;
- ammonia from coke ovens reacts with sulfuric acid;
- neutralization of sulfuric acid with synthetic ammonia.
Use when receiving ammonium chloride
The latter is used for the production of fertilizers, in the pharmaceutical industry,metallurgy. It can be obtained from ammonium sulfate. Ammonium chloride is obtained by the reaction of the latter with table salt. At the intermediate stage hydrochloric acid, ammonia and sodium sulfate are formed. The latter is not involved in the production of ammonium chloride.
In the second stage of the reaction, ammonia reacts with hydrochloric acid with the release of white smoke.
With increasing temperature, ammonium chloride is the reverse reaction. Ammonium sulfate is not formed, products that previously reacted are formed.
A characteristic feature of the first is that it can interact with various salts. The ammonium sulphate equations with them are given below:
(NH4)2SO4+ Ba (NO3)2→ BaSO4↓ + 2NH4NO3
2NH4++ SO42-+ Ba2++ 2NO3-→ BaSO4↓ + 2NH4++ 2NO3-
Ba2++ SO42-→ BaSO4↓
Brief description of fertilizer
Ammonium Sulphate Formula (NH4)2SO4.
In its composition, the fat contains 24% sulfur and 21% nitrogen. By chemical properties is a crystalline salt, having a white color. Water solubility is good, hygroscopicity is weak, which causes its good flowability and incompatibility.
Sulfur and nitrogen are part of amino acids, which are monomers for proteins.
The first element contributes to a better absorption of potassium and phosphorus. Sulfur is necessary for plants to:
- increasing drought and frost resistance of crops;
- increasing the mass concentration of oils from oilseeds;
- takes part in the metabolism of proteins.
With a lack of sulfur, the following symptoms are observed:
- vegetative development of plants worsens;
- the taste properties of fruits and vegetables become worse;
- Excess amount of nitrates accumulates in the soil.
Nitrogen in the compound is in the ammonia form, which is more efficiently absorbed by plants than nitrate.
Fertilizer is used in liquid form for foliar dressing.
However, it is necessary to take into account some features of its use:
- it is not combined with wood ash, slaked lime and tomasshlak;
- for some crops its use is impractical, these include: oats, wheat, flax, buckwheat, soybean;
- it should not be used in large doses under plants that do not tolerate an acidic soil reaction.
The positive aspects of the use of ammonium sulfate
This tuk is used when the following circumstances occur:
- leaves are pale, small, rapidly falling;
- young growth of shrubs and fruit trees is thin and weak;
- fruits, formed on them, have low taste, ugly, small, poorly stored;
- crop growth is slow.
All this speaks of a lack of nitrogen.
Ammonium sulphate has several advantages over other nitrogen fertilizers:
- low cost of its acquisition;
- can be applied with other tukam;
- for a long time is in the top layer of soil, which contributes to its gradual absorption by the roots;
- is non-toxic to humans;
- fruit and vegetable products grown with its use preserve juiciness, vitamins, taste characteristics for a long period of time and are not subject to rotting.
Use when growing various crops
This fertilizer is used on soils in which the neutral or weakly alkaline reaction of the environment. Like any other nitrogen fertilizer, it is used predominantly, in early spring, in order to give impetus to the development of plants. It is made, first of all, under the following cultures:
- requiring increased content of sulfur in the soil: winter wheat, buckwheat, radish, rape, representatives of the Cabbage family;
- cultures that prefer the ammonium form compared to the nitrate form: barley, corn, potatoes.
The use of ammonium sulphate under potatoes increases the yield, weight of tubers, as well as the mass concentration of starch in them. Fertilizer is used in a dose of 25-40 g / sq. m. During the growing season is carried out 2-3 times. Such frequent fertilizing with nitrogen in the form of the fertilizer in question does not contribute to excessive accumulation of nitrates in tubers.
Watering with a solution of ammonium sulfate and perform for carrots. Its use contributes to the straightening of root crops, since sulfur is responsible for their correct appearance. They accumulate more sugars, carrots become more juicy. Feeding is carried out until the onset of 15-20 days before harvesting of root crops.
When applying fertilizer for seedlings and trees, it is mixed with mullein. There is an increase in green mass first and their acceleration of growth. The fruits on the trees become large and juicy.
Under the cauliflower and white cabbage contribute 15-20 g / sq. m tuk to prevent the growth of green mass, which will take nutrients and prevent the formation of heads or heads. Ammonium fertilizer is applied 1 time before or after planting.
Green plants are actively responding to the introduction of this nitrogen tuk. There is an increase in the harvest of parsley, cilantro, celery, mint.
Under the flower plants can be used separately from other azotogens, as well as in the composition of complex fertilization. In this case, the dose is 20-30 g per 1 square. m
Fertilizer refers to physiologically acidic. Therefore, when it is repeatedly used, the soil begins to shift the response of the medium to the left. In this regard, it is recommended when using ammonium sulfate to make lime materials in the ratio of 1: 1.3.
On chernozem soils, acidification occurs over a long period of time (10-15 years), since they have a high buffering capacity and a good content of organic matter.
When tilling the soil, the ammonia form of nitrogen, which is characteristic of the form of fertilizer in question, becomes nitrate. It is promoted by the reaction of the soil, the degree of aeration, the mass fraction of moisture in the soil, its temperature conditions.
The ammonium ion in the soil is retained on the surface, due to which it is absorbed by plants for a long time interval.
As already mentioned, the fertilizer is not hygroscopic, therefore it does not require special storage conditions. The shelf life is theoretically unlimited. However, the long period of fertilizer in the warehouse contributes to some loss of active ingredient from it.
Ammonium Sulphate Nitrate
There is a patent for an invention relating to agriculture, under No. 2483048.
It is produced by preparing an aqueous slurry, which contains ammonium sulfate and nitrate, followed by granulation and drying in a special apparatus.
This fertilizer is also characterized by low caking, low hygroscopicity, durable granules.
The nitrogen content in it is 26% at a low sulfur concentration of 12-15%.
Ammonium sulfate is a substance that can be obtained as a result of some chemical reactions. Used in various fields of national economy - from fisheries to the food industry. In agricultural practice it can be applied as a top dressing for various cultivated plants. As a fertilizer it does not cake, it dissolves well in water, it is slightly hygroscopic, therefore it is suitable for long-term storage.For those crops for which nitrate form of nitrogen, rather than ammonia, is more needed, it is better to use ammonium sulphate-nitrate.